Research Article Open Access

Use of Quinolones in Bull Semen Extenders to Reduce Sperm Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage

Clara Gonzalez-Marin1, Michael Eduard Kjelland1, Rosa Roy2, Carmen Lopez-Fernandez2, Jose Luis Fernandez3, Juan Fernando Moreno1 and Jaime Gosalvez2
  • 1 , United States
  • 2 University Autonoma of Madrid, Spain
  • 3 A Coruna Universty Hospital, Spain


Cryopreserved sperm samples from Holstein bulls (n = 20) were examined for bacterial presence and Sperm DNA Fragmentation (SDF) dynamics. SDF was assessed after thawing (T0) and at 4, 24 and 48 h of incubation (37°C) and the rate of SDF (r-SDF), as an estimator of the DNA degradation over time, was calculated. Two groups of bulls were identified based on the presence or absence of bacteria: One group (n = 10) had a readily detectable bacterial presence, while the other group (n = 10) had an undetectable bacterial presence. Differences in the SDF at T0 were not observed between these two groups. However, statistically different results were found after 24 h of incubation at 37°C (Kaplan-Meier estimator; Log-Rank Matel-Cox, p<0.000). To test the direct effect of bacteria on SDF, sperm samples from 6 bulls without bacteria were inoculated with 5 µL of sperm that consistently exhibited a bacterial presence at 48 h of incubation at 37°C. Differences were observed in the r-SDF between the control and the inoculated samples. In a parallel experiment, sperm samples from 10 bulls were treated with 1 µg mL-1 of ciprofloxacin at T0. Differences in the r-SDF (p>0.05) were not detected between the control and the quinolone treated sample for those samples without bacteria. However, differences (p<0.000) in SDF were observed for quinolone treated samples that previously presented bacteria. Incubation of sealed straws showed that bacterial contamination occurred prior to cryopreservation. These results call attention to three points: (1) sperm samples were in contact with bacteria before cryopreservation; (2) the r-SDF can be directly correlated with bacterial presence but this effect remains cryptic after thawing and (3) the r-SDF can be reduced by treating the semen samples with an adequate antibiotic such as quinolones, a finding not previously reported in the scientific literature, but important in terms of reproduction.

American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 7 No. 4, 2012, 180-185


Submitted On: 29 July 2012 Published On: 29 December 2012

How to Cite: Gonzalez-Marin, C., Kjelland, M. E., Roy, R., Lopez-Fernandez, C., Fernandez, J. L., Moreno, J. F. & Gosalvez, J. (2012). Use of Quinolones in Bull Semen Extenders to Reduce Sperm Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 7(4), 180-185.

  • 7 Citations



  • Bacteria
  • DNA Fragmentation
  • Antibiotics