Research Article Open Access

Eco-Friendly Eggshell Meal on Milk Yield and Quality of Holstein Friesian Cows

Ambo Ako1, Renny Fatmyah Utamy1, Hasbi Hasbi1, Muhammad Irfan Said1, Muhammad Hatta1, Nurul Sulfi Andini2, Lizah Khairani3, Andi Ni’matul Churriyah4, Khaerunnisa Khaerunnisa5, Andi Arif Rahman6, Silvi7, Rara Mufliha7, Zyahrul Ramadan7 and Purnama Isti Khaerani8
  • 1 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
  • 2 Department of Pathology Veterinary, Faculty of Medical, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
  • 3 Departement of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
  • 4 Departement of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Science, University of Muhammadiyah Mamuju, West Sulawesi, Indonesia
  • 5 Center for Standardization and Services on Plantation, Metallic Minerals and Maritime Industries, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
  • 6 Laboratories at the Laboratory of Dairy Cow, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
  • 7 Undergraduate Student of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
  • 8 Postgraduate School, Agriculture System, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia


Mineral deficiencies, particularly a lack of Calcium (Ca), can have a detrimental effect on the performance of livestock, including dairy cows. While commercial sources of Ca are commonly used in dairy cow feed, they may not always be available or affordable. In this regard, introducing a new approach that utilizes eggshell meal as a natural source of Ca can not only improve milk yield and quality but also reduce waste. Therefore, we experimented to evaluate whether an eco-friendly eggshell meal could be a viable alternative source of Ca for Holstein Friesian dairy cows and improve milk yield and quality. We used 20 cows (ethical consideration No. 470/UN4. that were experimented with different levels of eggshell meal in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. The experimental diets were as follows; eggshell meal 0%+ commercial mineral 100% (EM0+ CM100); EM 25%+ CM 75%; EM 50%+ CM 50%; EM 75%+ CM 25%; and EM 100%+ CM 0%. The results showed that the eco-friendly eggshell meal as a source of Ca increased the milk yield by up to 100%. The intake of dry matter and milk quality, such as pH, density, CP, and P, had a similar effect on commercial minerals. Therefore, eggshell meal could effectively replace commercial mineral supplements in the diets of Holstein Friesian dairy cows. Not only does this approach lead to increased milk yield and Ca content in the milk, but it also has the potential to reduce waste in eggshell production. By utilizing eggshell meal as a raw material for mineral source feed, dairy farmers can promote environmental sustainability and improve the efficiency of the dairy sector.


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American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 19 No. 2, 2024, 167-171


Submitted On: 25 January 2024 Published On: 26 May 2024

How to Cite: Ako, A., Utamy, R. F., Hasbi, H., Said, M. I., Hatta, M., Andini, N. S., Khairani, L., Churriyah, A. N., Khaerunnisa, K., Rahman, A. A., Silvi, ., Mufliha, R., Ramadan, Z. & Khaerani, P. I. (2024). Eco-Friendly Eggshell Meal on Milk Yield and Quality of Holstein Friesian Cows. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 19(2), 167-171.

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  • Commercial Mineral
  • Eggshell Meal
  • Holstein Friesian Dairy Cow
  • Milk Quality and Yield