Influence of Heirloom Tomato Polyphenol Extracts on Expression of Inflammation Genes in Bovine
- 1 North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, United States
The effect of tomato on diseases of economic importance continues to be of broad interest. To evaluate these relationships, the effect of crude extracts of Cherokee purple tomato on pro-inflammatory genes and cytokines were evaluated. Neutrophils from three Holstein Fresian cows were treated with Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) or E. coli O111-B4 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treated cells were exposed to different concentrations of polyphenol extracts of fresh and heated Cherokee purple. Transcription of Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected using real time PCR. Secretion of cytokines was evaluated using specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)’s for three pro-inflammatory genes. Transcription of Cox-2 and TNF-α in bovine neutrophils were found. No significant treatment effect of tomato polyphenols was found in the LPS treated neutrophils. TNF-α and Cox-2 expression in bovine neutrophils were modulated by polyphenol treatment. Variable concentration of polyphenol extracts had no effect on Cox-2 transcription. Gene expression analysis of TNF-α and Cox-2 mRNA showed significantly decreased transcription of Cox-2 in neutrophils exposed to polyphenol extracts (p<0.0326). Polyphenol exposure did not have an influence on induction of Cox-2 by LPS. Treatment with polyphenols decreased transcription of TNF-α at the level of 200 ng mL-1 (p<0.05). Fresh or heated polyphenol did not influence transcription of TNF-α. Significant variation was observed among cows in transcription of TNF-α (p<0.05). No significant treatment effect was observed for translation in Cox-2, TNF-α and GCSF exposed to fresh or heated polyphenol extracts. Relative secretion of the antiviral pro-inflammatory cytokine IFNr was increased compared to the control in samples exposed to heated tomato polyphenol extracts (p<0.05). Results showed that tomato polyphenols modulate expression of pro-inflammatory genes in bovine neutrophils and may provide avenues to boost innate immunity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to discuss the role Cherokee purple polyphenol extracts plays in innate immunity.
Copyright: © 2012 Kwaku Gyenai, Nona Mikiashvili, Hamid Ismail and Mulumebet Worku. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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- Tomato Polyphenol
- Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
- Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS)