Review Article Open Access

Mechanistic Insights of Actions of Metal Nanoparticles on Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

Seham S. Alzahrani1, Hani Mohammed Ali1 and Mohamed M. Ahmed2
  • 1 King Abdelaziz University, Saudi Arabia
  • 2 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Egypt

Abstract

Multidrug-Resistant bacteria (MDR) are the most serious threat to public health. The number of infections caused by resistant strains is on the rise all over the world. At this time, new techniques for developing antimicrobial drugs are becoming necessary. Metallic Nanoparticles (MNPs) in the biomedical field are one of the most promising methods to overcome antibiotic resistance. Nanoparticles have recently been used as antiseptics and antimicrobials to treat a variety of diseases, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The disruptions caused by nanoparticles to bacterial cells include changing bacterial cell walls, denaturation of bacterial DNA and inhibition of bacterial replications. These processes are still, however, not completely understood. The DNA damage caused by Nanoparticles (NPs) results from penetrating the bacterial cell membrane due to its small size and large surface area. This action causes bacterial DNA replication to be disrupted. The use of nanoparticles still presents a therapeutic challenge and much further research is needed to solve this. This review covers the latest approaches to developing new nanobiotechnology techniques that may challenge medical practice to fight against bacteria, particularly MDR bacteria. The study also discusses the up-to-date information about the bacterial resistance mechanism against various antimicrobial agents, identifying the mechanism(s) that can be a therapeutic target. It also discusses the genetic background to silver nanoparticles resistance. 1. Introduction. 2. Mechanisms of Multi-Drug Resistance Bacteria. Antibacterial Mechanisms of Nanoparticles. Role of nanoparticles in therapeutics and drug delivery. Bacterial resistance to NPs.1 General resistance mechanisms. Bacterial resistance to silver 6. Conclusion.

OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences
Volume 21 No. 2, 2021, 346-353

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ojbsci.2021.346.353

Submitted On: 10 April 2021 Published On: 22 June 2021

How to Cite: Alzahrani, S. S., Ali, H. M. & M. Ahmed, M. (2021). Mechanistic Insights of Actions of Metal Nanoparticles on Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences, 21(2), 346-353. https://doi.org/10.3844/ojbsci.2021.346.353

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Keywords

  • Metal Nanoparticles
  • Antimicrobial Against
  • Multidrug-Resistant
  • Nano Biotechnology