Characterization of Solid Residues Obtained from Supercritical Ethanol Liquefaction of Swine Manure
- 1 North Carolina A and T State University, United States
Copyright: © 2020 Rui Li, Bo Zhang, Shuangning Xiu, Hui Wang, Lijun Wang and Abolghasem Shahbazi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Animal wastes are considered as renewable energy resources, which contain a great energy potential. For this study, swine manure was treated with supercritical ethanol within the reaction temperature range of 240-360°C to produce bio-oil, resulting in a significant amount of solid residues. Solid residues were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), surface area, elemental and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Solid residues were mainly composed of carbon (26-29 wt%) and ash (35-45 wt%) and exhibited low surface areas (11-17 m2/g). The analyses indicated an incomplete conversion of lignocellulosic components and thermal chemical reactions including hydrolysis, dehydration, decarboxylation, aromatization and condensation. Supercritical ethanol liquefaction is considered as a feasible way to remove oxygen and utilize carbon and hydrogen in swine manure to produce carbonaceous materials and energy condensed bio-fuels.
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- Swine Manure
- Supercritical Ethanol Liquefaction
- Solid Residues
- FT-IR Analysis
- SEM Analysis