Research Article Open Access

Characterization of Solid Residues Obtained from Supercritical Ethanol Liquefaction of Swine Manure

Rui Li1, Bo Zhang1, Shuangning Xiu1, Hui Wang1, Lijun Wang1 and Abolghasem Shahbazi1
  • 1 North Carolina A and T State University, United States
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Volume 8 No. 4, 2015, 465-470

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajeassp.2015.465.470

Submitted On: 1 July 2015 Published On: 15 July 2015

How to Cite: Li, R., Zhang, B., Xiu, S., Wang, H., Wang, L. & Shahbazi, A. (2015). Characterization of Solid Residues Obtained from Supercritical Ethanol Liquefaction of Swine Manure. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 8(4), 465-470. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajeassp.2015.465.470

Abstract

Animal wastes are considered as renewable energy resources, which contain a great energy potential. For this study, swine manure was treated with supercritical ethanol within the reaction temperature range of 240-360°C to produce bio-oil, resulting in a significant amount of solid residues. Solid residues were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), surface area, elemental and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Solid residues were mainly composed of carbon (26-29 wt%) and ash (35-45 wt%) and exhibited low surface areas (11-17 m2/g). The analyses indicated an incomplete conversion of lignocellulosic components and thermal chemical reactions including hydrolysis, dehydration, decarboxylation, aromatization and condensation. Supercritical ethanol liquefaction is considered as a feasible way to remove oxygen and utilize carbon and hydrogen in swine manure to produce carbonaceous materials and energy condensed bio-fuels.

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Keywords

  • Swine Manure
  • Supercritical Ethanol Liquefaction
  • Solid Residues
  • FT-IR Analysis
  • SEM Analysis