Research Article Open Access

Preparation of Rose Vinegar Rich in Gamma-Linolenic Acid and Analysis of its Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Activity

Yao Zhang1,2, Qing Liu2, Zhuo Liu1, Chao Zhang3 and Yuanda Song2
  • 1 Food Bioengineering and Technology Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Culture and Tourism, University of Jinan, 13 Shungeng Road, Jinan 250022, China
  • 2 Colin Ratledge Center for Microbial Lipids, School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, 266 Xincun West Road, Zibo 255000, China
  • 3 Shandong Baofeng Food Company, 3 Zhangliu Road, Zibo 255000, China


Despite the rapid development of various types of fruit vinegar or nutrient-fortified vinegar, the weakened functions or high cost is still the main limiting factor for healthy vinegar. In the present study, a new type of rose vinegar was obtained from raw grain supplemented with natural extract of roses through the cooperative fermentation of multiple microorganisms by adding Mucor circinelloides and lactic acid bacteria. The chemical composition analysis showed that this rose vinegar was rich in various organic acids and amino acids, which endowed the rose vinegar with a special taste and nutritional value. In particular, fatty acid content results revealed that the rose vinegar contained several long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, especially the valuable Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA), which was mainly due to the addition of M. circinelloides that could synthesize GLA during the fermentation of vinegar. The antioxidant activity of the rose vinegar indicated that the contents of gallic acid and vanillic acid were relatively high and thus it had a certain scavenging ability on DPPH free radicals, superoxide anion free radicals, and hydroxyl free radicals. This is the first study to develop a healthy vinegar containing GLA with antioxidant activity by combining the rose extract with a variety of beneficial microbial fermentation.

American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Volume 19 No. 3, 2023, 194-201


Submitted On: 5 April 2023 Published On: 8 August 2023

How to Cite: Zhang, Y., Liu, Q., Liu, Z., Zhang, C. & Song, Y. (2023). Preparation of Rose Vinegar Rich in Gamma-Linolenic Acid and Analysis of its Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Activity. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 19(3), 194-201.

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  • Rose Vinegar
  • Gamma-Linolenic Acid
  • Mucor circinelloides
  • Lactic Acid Bacteria
  • Antioxidant Activity