Research Article Open Access

Far-Red Spectrum of Second Emerson Effect: A Study Using Dual-Wavelength Pulse Amplitude Modulation Fluorometry

V. S. Lysenko1, T. V. Varduny1, E. I. Simonovich1, O. I. Chugueva1, V. A. Chokheli1, M. M. Sereda1, S. N. Gorbov1, V. P. Krasnov2, E. K. Tarasov1, I. Y. Sherstneva1 and M. Yu Kozlova1
  • 1 Southern Federal University, Russia
  • 2 Rostov State Medical University, Russia


Non-additive enhancement of the photosynthesis excited by simultaneous illumination with far-red light and light of shorter wavelengths is called as "second Emerson effect". Its action spectra are well-known as a photosynthetic yield's dependence on light wavelength in red (630-690 nm) spectral region at a constant-wavelength far-red illumination near 700-715 nm. However, the opposite dependence of the photosynthetic yield's of shorter constant-wavelength light (red or blue) on light wavelength in far-red (690-760 nm) spectral region was never studied. In this study the action spectrum of second Emerson effect was studied using a fast-Fourier dual-wavelength Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry. Chlorophyll fluorescence in ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima Mill.) leaves was excited with blue modulated light. Far-red induced decrease of fluorescence (fluorescence shift-FRIFS) was studied in response to illumination of leaves with a background light from 690 to 760 nm (10 nm step), calculating FRIFS = (F0-Fs)/F0, where F0-fluorescence measured without and Fs-with far-red light. Maximum FRIFS was observed at 720 nm (11.8%), but it still remained considerable at 740, 750 nm and a low FRIFS values were revealed at 690 and even at 760 nm. Measurements carried out with blue saturating flashes during and after far-red illumination showed the increase of quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII), calculated as Fv/Fm at 720 nm background light. FRIFS had lower values under excitation with red modulating light. It is concluded that FRIFS is a result of a photochemical quenching caused by an additional selective far-red excitation of PSI in conditions when PSII is preferably excited by blue light thus leading the PSI to limit non-cyclic electron flow. The contradiction between the known absorption spectra of PSI-light harvesting complex I and the observed action spectrum of second Emerson effect (FRIFS spectrum) is discussed.

American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Volume 10 No. 4, 2014, 234-240


Submitted On: 13 September 2014 Published On: 19 November 2014

How to Cite: Lysenko, V. S., Varduny, T. V., Simonovich, E. I., Chugueva, O. I., Chokheli, V. A., Sereda, M. M., Gorbov, S. N., Krasnov, V. P., Tarasov, E. K., Sherstneva, I. Y. & Kozlova, M. Y. (2014). Far-Red Spectrum of Second Emerson Effect: A Study Using Dual-Wavelength Pulse Amplitude Modulation Fluorometry. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 10(4), 234-240.

  • 10 Citations



  • Second Emerson Effect
  • Far-Red Light
  • Fast-Fourier PAM-Fluorometry
  • Photosystem I
  • Photosysten II
  • Thylakoid Electron Transport
  • Ailanthus Altissima