Research Article Open Access

Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism and Implications for Treatment

Daniel A. Rossignol1 and J. Jeffrey Bradstreet1
  • 1 International Child Development Resource Center, United States


Classical mitochondrial diseases occur in a subset of individuals with autism and are usually caused by genetic anomalies or mitochondrial respiratory pathway deficits. However, in many cases of autism, there is evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) without the classic features associated with mitochondrial disease. MtD appears to be more common in autism and presents with less severe signs and symptoms. It is not associated with discernable mitochondrial pathology in muscle biopsy specimens despite objective evidence of lowered mitochondrial functioning. Exposure to environ-mental toxins is the likely etiology for MtD in autism. This dysfunction then contributes to a number of diagnostic symptoms and comorbidities observed in autism including: cognitive impairment, language deficits, abnormal energy metabolism, chronic gastrointestinal problems, abnormalities in fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxidative stress. MtD and oxidative stress may also explain the high male to female ratio found in autism due to increased male vulnerability to these dysfunctions. Biomarkers for mitochondrial dysfunction have been identified, but seem widely under-utilized despite available therapeutic interventions. Nutritional supplementation to decrease oxidative stress along with factors to improve reduced glutathione, as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) represent supported and rationale approaches. The underlying pathophysiology and autistic symptoms of affected individuals would be expected to either improve or cease worsening once effective treatment for MtD is implemented.

American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Volume 4 No. 2, 2008, 208-217


Submitted On: 19 July 2007 Published On: 30 June 2008

How to Cite: Rossignol, D. A. & Bradstreet, J. J. (2008). Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism and Implications for Treatment. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 4(2), 208-217.

  • 60 Citations



  • Mitochondria
  • inflammation
  • Oxidative Stress
  • antioxidants
  • hyperbaric oxygen therapy
  • lactate
  • ammonia
  • Co-Enzyme Q10