OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences

Genotypic Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance-Associated Genes in Citrobacter Freundii Isolated from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection in Al-Najaf Governorate-Iraq

Thualfakar Hayder and Ahmed Abduljabbar Jaloob Aljanaby

DOI : 10.3844/ojbsci.2019.132.145

OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences

Volume 19, Issue 2

Pages 132-145


Citrobacter freundii is one of the most important pathogens that cause urinary tract infection in human because it harbors many types of antimicrobials resistance-associated genes. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance-associated genes citrobacter freundii isolated from patients with urinary tract infection in Al-Najaf governorate-Iraq. A total of 30 strains of citrobacter freundii isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infection in Al-Najaf central hospital in Al-Najaf City, Iraq, during April to December 2018. Polymers chain reaction technique was used to detect the presence of antimicrobial resistance-associated genes. From the 30 strains of citrobacter freundii, 15 strains (50%) were positive for bla-tem gene, 16 strains (53.3%) were positive for bla-shv gene, 21 strains (70%) were positive for bla-ctxm gene, 3 strains (10%) were positive for bla-ctxm-1 gene, 6 strains (20%) were positive for bla-ctxm-2 gene. Interestingly, it should be noted that no any strain form the 30 we tested was carrying pse1, bla-ctxm-8, bla-ctxm-9 or bla-ctxm-25 genes. Our data showed that 19 strains (63.3%) were positive for cat1 gene, 9 strains (30%) were positive for cat2 gene and 4 strains (13.3%) were positive for cat3 gene. On the other hand, 17 strains (56.6%) were carrying qnrA gene, 11 strains (36.6%) were carrying qnrB gene and aac(6')-Ib-cr gene. Also, the results proved that there were 7 strains (23.3%) being positive for sul1 gene and 11 strains (36.6%) were positive for sul2 gene. We also found 22 strains (73.3%) being positive for strA-strB gene and 4 isolates (13.3%) were positive for aacC1 genes. No strain carrying aacC2, tetA and tetB genes was identified. Citrobacter freundii harbor large numbers of different antimicrobial resistance-associated genes that enable this pathogen to escape the effect of antibiotics which make this bacteria highly resistant causing urinary tract infection.


© 2019 Thualfakar Hayder and Ahmed Abduljabbar Jaloob Aljanaby. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.