OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences

Four Dimensional (4-D) BioChemInfoPhysics Models of Cardiac Cellular and Sub-Cellular Vibrations (Oscillations)

Kang Cheng and Chang-Hua Zou

DOI : 10.3844/ojbsci.2009.52.61

OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences

Volume 9, Issue 2

Pages 52-61


Problem statement: Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) continued to be the leading cause of death. Failure or abnormal cardiac cellular or sub-cellular vibrations (oscillations) could lead failure or abnormal heart beats that could cause CVD. Understanding the mechanisms of the vibrations (oscillations) could help to prevent or to treat the diseases. Scientists have studied the mechanisms for more than 100 years. To our knowledge, the mechanisms are still unclear today. In this investigation, based on published data or results, conservation laws of the momentum as well as the energy, in views of biology, biochemistry, informatics and physics (BioChemInfoPhysics), we proposed our models of cardiac cellular and sub-cellular vibrations (oscillations) of biological components, such as free ions in Biological Fluids (BF), Biological Membranes (BM), Ca++H+ (Ca++ and Na+K+) ATPases, Na+Ca++ exchangers (NCX), Ca++ carriers and myosin heads. Approach: Our models were described with 4-D (x, y, z, t or r, θ, z, t) momentum transfer equations in mathematical physics. Results: The momentum transfer equations were solved with free and forced, damped, un-damped and over-damped, vibrations (oscillations). The biological components could be modeled as resonators or vibrators (oscillators), such as liquid plasmas, membranes, active springs, passive springs and active swings. Conclusion: We systematically provided new insights of automation (ignition and maintain), transportation, propagation and orientation of the cardiac cellular and sub-cellular vibrations (oscillations) and resonances, with our BioChemInfoPhysics models of 4-D momentum transfer equations. Our modeling results implied: Auto-rhythmic cells (Sinoatrial Node Cells (SANC), Atrioventricular Node Cells (AVNC), Purkinje fibers), non-Auto-rhythmic ventricular myocytes and their Sarcoplasmic Reticulums (SR) work as Biological Liquid Plasma Resonators (BLPR). The resonators were biological clocks and mainly made of BF, BM and BM Transporters (BMT) that had mutually adapted and produced Biological Liquid Plasma Resonance Frequencies (BLPRF) for the resonators during their natural evolution. The resonators naturally vibrate (oscillate) near the SANC SR BLPRF that had the highest BLPRF among them.


© 2009 Kang Cheng and Chang-Hua Zou. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.