Neuroscience International

Immune-Based Therapies for Spinal Cord Injury

Basem I. Awad, Davina V. Gutierrez and Michael P. Steinmetz

DOI : 10.3844/amjnsp.2013.25.38

Neuroscience International

Volume 4, Issue 1

Pages 25-38


Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) results in both focal and diffuse spinal cord pathologies that are exacerbated by an inflammatory response after the initial injury. Resident and infiltrating immune cells contribute significantly to the growth-refractory environment near the lesion and can intensify damage to spared tissue, resulting in impaired spontaneous functional recovery. Numerous studies have demonstrated that several immunomodulatory therapies administered after experimental SCI may be beneficial in promoting functional recovery. In this review, we focus on the therapeutic potential of the most abundant immune-based therapies e.g., rolipram, liposomal clodronate and TNF-α based therapy including etanercept, thalidomide and adenosine A1 receptor therapy their contribution to eliminating secondary damage and promoting recovery after SCI.


© 2013 Basem I. Awad, Davina V. Gutierrez and Michael P. Steinmetz. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.