American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Constitutive Androstane Receptor Dependent and Independent Modulation of CYP3A2, CYP1A2 by Phenobarbital and Fibrate in Rats’ Liver

Zein Shaban Ibrahim, Mohamed Mohamed Ahmed, Mustafa Shukry, Shawky Mahmoud and Mayumi Ishizuka

DOI : 10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.272.281

American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Volume 9, Issue 3

Pages 272-281


Cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP3A and CYP1A are major drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver. CYP3A enzymes have a major role in the metabolism of 30-40% of all used drugs. CYP1A2 is a key enzyme having an important role in the metabolic clearance of 5% of currently marketed drugs. CYP1A2 participates in the metabolic activation of chemical mutagens in cooked food, therefore its activity is suspected to be one of the possible risk factors determining the carcinogenicity of heterocyclic amines in human beings. In a previous report, we have reported the induction of CYP3A2 and the inhibition of CYP1A2 by Fibrate (CFA) and proved CYP1A2 inhibition to be PPARα-dependent. CYP3A2 and CYP1A2 have been reported to be induced in the liver by Phenobarbital (PB) while Fibrates was reported to induce CYP3A2. However the exact mechanism of the induction of CYP3A2 by CFA and PB and induction of CYP1A2 by PB has not been clarified yet whether it is through Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) or other receptor as PPARα or Pregnane X Receptor (PXR). We treated Wistar female rats (with normal expression of CAR protein) and Wistar femal Kyoto rats (with low expression of CAR protein) with PB and Clofibric Acid (CFA). PB caused a high CYP3A2 induction in Wistar female rats and a low induction in (WKY) indicating that PB induced CYP3A2 in a CAR-dependent manner. Interestingly, PB treatment induced CYP1A2 in Wistar female rats and failed to induce it in (WKY) indicating that the induction of CYP1A2 by PB to be CAR-dependent. Moreover CFA induced CYP3A2 protein similarly in both rat strains indicating that CYP3A2 induction by Fibrates is CAR-independent and most probably to be PXR or PPARα-dependent. For the best of our knowledge this is the first report that shows a clear evidence of the CAR-dependent induction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A2 by PB and the CAR-independent induction of CYP3A2 by fibrates.


© 2013 Zein Shaban Ibrahim, Mohamed Mohamed Ahmed, Mustafa Shukry, Shawky Mahmoud and Mayumi Ishizuka. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.