In Vivo Neutralization of Naja nigricollis Venom by Uvaria chamae
Omale James, Ebiloma Unekwuojo Godwin and Idoko Grace Otini
DOI : 10.3844/ajbbsp.2013.224.234
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Volume 9, Issue 3
Uvaria chamae is a well known medicinal plant in Nigerian traditional medicine for the management of many diseases, but investigations concerning its pharmacological characteristics are rare. In this study, we evaluate its venom neutralizing properties against Naja nigricollis venom in rats. Freshly collected Uvaria chamae leaves were air dried, powdered and extracted in methanol. To study the antivenom properties, albino rats were orally administered with a dose of 400 mg kg-1 body weight and one hour later, the venom was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.08 mg kg-1 body weight of rats. Albino rats (male) weighing between 180-200g were randomly divided into five (5) groups of three (3). Groups 1-5 received water, normal saline, venom, Uvaria chamae and venom, Uvaria chamae respectively. Blood clothing time, bleeding time, antipyretic activity, haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, creatine kinase, AST, ALP and ALT activities total protein antioxidant activity and some blood electrolytes, plasma urea and uric acid were measured. Our results showed that Uvaria chamae methanol extract neutralized some biological effects of Naja nigricollis venom. The venom increased the rectal temperature, enzyme activities, bleeding time and other blood parameters. The plant extract was able to reduce these parameters in the extract treated groups. Details of the results are discussed. From this study, it is clear that U. chamae leaf extract had antivenom activity in animal models. The above results indicate that the plant extract possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and could potentially be used for therapeutic purpose in case of snake bite envenomation.
© 2013 Omale James, Ebiloma Unekwuojo Godwin and Idoko Grace Otini. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.