Research Article Open Access

The Stanford Dependency Relations for Commonsense Knowledge Representation of Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC)

Nesreen Alsharman1, Raja Masadeh2, Ibrahim Ali Jawarneh3 and Ahmad Al-Rababa’a2
  • 1 Department of Computer Science, German Jordan University, Amman, Jordan
  • 2 Department of Computer Science, the World Islamic Sciences and Education University, Amman, Jordan
  • 3 Department of Mathematics, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Jordan


An alternative to the Turing Test that could offer a more accurate measurement of artificial intelligence is the Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC). It presents a number of coreference resolution issues that cannot be resolved without the use of human behavior reasoning. A certain type of Commonsense Knowledge (CSK) is necessary for Winograd schema. In order to handle the representation of Winograd appropriately, this research used a Deep-learning Stanford dependency parser as a natural language processing tool created by the Stanford NLP Group. The purpose of this tool is to use dependency grammar to represent sentences based on their grammatical analysis which helps understand the connections between words in a sentence such as which words rely on other words for meaning or grammar which is the task of dependency parsing. In addition, Extracting these dependency relations reflects commonsense knowledge representation for WSC. Then, we integrate common sense knowledge with the Syntactic ontology graphical representation by substituting synonyms for the main events in each sentence. To assess the entire system, we employed Precision and Recall as natural language performance evaluation metrics. Precision and recall measures for Root and advc1 dependency types are 0.94 and 0.92 respectively. Precision and recall measures for the nsubj dependency type are 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. Precision and recall measures for dobj, idobj, and pobj dependency types are 0.92 and 0.83.

Journal of Computer Science
Volume 20 No. 9, 2024, 1091-1098


Submitted On: 13 February 2024 Published On: 10 July 2024

How to Cite: Alsharman, N., Masadeh, R., Jawarneh, I. A. & Al-Rababa’a, A. (2024). The Stanford Dependency Relations for Commonsense Knowledge Representation of Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC). Journal of Computer Science, 20(9), 1091-1098.

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  • Commonsense Knowledge (CSK)
  • Winograd Schema Challenge
  • Referential Ambiguity
  • Stanford Dependency Relations