American Journal of Applied Sciences

Modules Over Rings of Small Characteristics and Maximality of Data Hiding ratio in CPTE Schemes

Phan Trung Huy, Cheonshik Kim and Nguyen Hai Thanh

DOI : 10.3844/ajassp.2013.1102.1108

American Journal of Applied Sciences

Volume 10, Issue 9

Pages 1102-1108


Introduced CPT scheme as a block-based hiding scheme based on the ring of the integers modulo 2r, which permits to embed r = ⌊log2(k+1)⌋ secret bits in F by changing at most two entries, while the highest number of secret bits in any CPT-based schemes is MSDR2 = ⌊log2(1+k (k+1)/2)⌋, approximately 2r-1. This ratio can be reached approximately in our proposed CPTE1 scheme by using modules on the ring Z2 of integers modulo 2, as an instance of application of modules over rings of small characteristics. As a consequence, a new modified scheme-CPTE2 is to control the quality of stego-images. The CPTE2 scheme gives 2r-2 embedded bits approximately, more than r-2 bits by Tseng-Pan’s scheme, while the quality is the same.


© 2013 Phan Trung Huy, Cheonshik Kim and Nguyen Hai Thanh. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.