American Journal of Applied Sciences

The Effect of Physical Refining on Palm Vitamin E (Tocopherol, Tocotrienol and Tocomonoenol)

Chiew Wei Puah, Yuen May Choo, Ah Ngan Ma and Cheng Hock Chuah

DOI : 10.3844/ajassp.2007.374.377

American Journal of Applied Sciences

Volume 4, Issue 6

Pages 374-377


This study reports the effect of physical refining on palm vitamin E including α−tocopherol, α−, γ− and δ−tocotrienols as well as α−tocomonoenol. A method using HPLC with fluorescence detector using normal phase silica column is described. An isocratic elution with n-hexane/THF/2-propanol (1000:60:4, by vol.) as mobile phase was used. The structure of the α−tocomonoenol was determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The composition of the vitamers were α−tocopherol (14–17%), α−tocotrienol (22–24%), γ−tocotrienol (49–53%), δ−tocotrienol (6–7%) and α−tocomonoenol (3%) throughout the physical refining. The concentration of all vitamers in crude palm oil was 1273±18 ppm. The concentrations of all vitamers in degummed palm oil, bleached palm oil and deodorized palm oil were 1134±20 ppm, 1095±18 ppm and 1029±18 ppm, respectively. This method provides fast and valuable information with minimal analysis time and no sample pre-treatment.


© 2007 Chiew Wei Puah, Yuen May Choo, Ah Ngan Ma and Cheng Hock Chuah. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.