American Journal of Applied Sciences

Standard Abundance Distribution of Elements in the Universe and Magic Numbers with Boltzmann Probability

Frederick Osman and Heinrich Hora

DOI : 10.3844/ajassp.2004.51.53

American Journal of Applied Sciences

Volume 1, Issue 1

Pages 51-53


The decay of the standard abundance distribution of elements in the Universe for heavy elements has well-know maxima near magic numbers of the nuclear shell model and deep minima in between. Combining the maxima as a generation probability N (Z) on the proton number Z of the nuclides, a Boltzmann probability shows decay N (Z) = N’ exp (-Z/Z’). The result of Z’ = 10 has consequences on the foundation of the magic numbers, on the quark structure of the shell and determines new higher magic numbers.


© 2004 Frederick Osman and Heinrich Hora. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.