American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Soluble CD14, Sialic Acid and L-Fucose in Breast Milk and their Role in Increasing the Immunity of Breast-Fed Infants

G. A. Oriquat, T. H. Saleem, S. T. Abdullah, G. T. Soliman, R. S. Yousef, A. M.A. Hameed and M. L. Salim

DOI : 10.3844/ajbbsp.2011.21.28

American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Volume 7, Issue 1

Pages 21-28

Abstract

Problem statement: Breast milk contain protective factors as soluble CD14, L-Fucose and Sialic acid which increase the innate immunity and level of intelligence, decrease the incidence of gastroenteritis, chest and other systemic diseases in newly born infants. In the present study the role of soluble CD14, L-Fucose and Sialic acid, in increasing the immunity in breastfed infants were studied to establish the previously unrecognized function and their broader spectrum of activities. Approach: The study was carried out with three different groups of breastfed neonates/infants; In group-I twenty full term neonate aging from (1-29 days), group-II fifteen pre-term neonates aging from (1-29 days) and in group-III fifteen infants aging from (61-730 days) were selected and their health were studied. Results: The results showed that the levels of sCD14 were 16.47 ± 5.50, 17.07 ± 5.86 and 15.10± 3.45 ?g mL?1 in full term, pre-term and 2-years group respectively. The levels of sialic acid were 2.5-3 folds higher in group-I (3.29±1.34 mmol L?1) and group-II (3.99 ± 1.32 mmol L?1), as compared to group-III (1.30 ± 0.16 mmol L?1) repectively. Similarly, the level of L-Fucose was 1.5 folds higher in group-I (8.84 ± 0.34 mmol L?1) and group-II (8.92 ± 0.37 mmol L?1) as compared to group-III (5.80 ± 1.96 mmol L-1). Conclusion: Breast milk contains a variety of antimicrobial substances (relatively resistant against intestinal proteolysis) that functions in safeguarding the lactating mammary gland and provides protection to the suckling infant at a time when its immune system is still immature, some of these substances include sCD14, Sialic acid and L-Fucose. Hence, it is recommended to breastfeed the neonates/infants to enhance their immunity.

Copyright

© 2011 G. A. Oriquat, T. H. Saleem, S. T. Abdullah, G. T. Soliman, R. S. Yousef, A. M.A. Hameed and M. L. Salim. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.