Research Article Open Access

Soluble CD14, Sialic Acid and L-Fucose in Breast Milk and their Role in Increasing the Immunity of Breast-Fed Infants

Ghalib Ali Oriquat1, Tahia H. Saleem1, Samir T. Abdullah1, Gamal T. Soliman1, Reda S. Yousef1, Abdellah M. Adel Hameed1 and Maher L. Salim1
  • 1 , Afganistan
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Volume 7 No. 1, 2011, 21-28

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajbbsp.2011.21.28

Submitted On: 12 September 2010 Published On: 27 April 2011

How to Cite: Oriquat, G. A., Saleem, T. H., Abdullah, S. T., Soliman, G. T., Yousef, R. S., Hameed, A. M. A. & Salim, M. L. (2011). Soluble CD14, Sialic Acid and L-Fucose in Breast Milk and their Role in Increasing the Immunity of Breast-Fed Infants. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 7(1), 21-28. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajbbsp.2011.21.28

Abstract

Problem statement: Breast milk contain protective factors as soluble CD14, L-Fucose and Sialic acid which increase the innate immunity and level of intelligence, decrease the incidence of gastroenteritis, chest and other systemic diseases in newly born infants. In the present study the role of soluble CD14, L-Fucose and Sialic acid, in increasing the immunity in breastfed infants were studied to establish the previously unrecognized function and their broader spectrum of activities. Approach: The study was carried out with three different groups of breastfed neonates/infants; In group-I twenty full term neonate aging from (1-29 days), group-II fifteen pre-term neonates aging from (1-29 days) and in group-III fifteen infants aging from (61-730 days) were selected and their health were studied. Results: The results showed that the levels of sCD14 were 16.47 ± 5.50, 17.07 ± 5.86 and 15.10± 3.45 µg mL-1 in full term, pre-term and 2-years group respectively. The levels of sialic acid were 2.5-3 folds higher in group-I (3.29±1.34 mmol L-1) and group-II (3.99 ± 1.32 mmol L-1), as compared to group-III (1.30 ± 0.16 mmol L-1) repectively. Similarly, the level of L-Fucose was 1.5 folds higher in group-I (8.84 ± 0.34 mmol L-1) and group-II (8.92 ± 0.37 mmol L-1) as compared to group-III (5.80 ± 1.96 mmol L-1). Conclusion: Breast milk contains a variety of antimicrobial substances (relatively resistant against intestinal proteolysis) that functions in safeguarding the lactating mammary gland and provides protection to the suckling infant at a time when its immune system is still immature, some of these substances include sCD14, Sialic acid and L-Fucose. Hence, it is recommended to breastfeed the neonates/infants to enhance their immunity.

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Keywords

  • Soluble CD14 (sCD14)
  • L-fucose
  • sialic acid
  • breast milk
  • innate immunity
  • Secretary Toxins (ST)
  • Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs)
  • predominantly macrophages
  • foreign antigen
  • producing cells
  • lactating mammary
  • inflammatory cytokines