American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Transgenic Indian Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Harboring Rice Chitinase Gene (Chi II) Confers Resistance to Two Fungal Pathogens

M. Ganesan, P. Bhanumathi, K. Ganesh Kumari, A. Lakshmi Prabha, Pill-Soon Song and N. Jayabalan

DOI : 10.3844/ajbbsp.2009.63.74

American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Volume 5, Issue 2

Pages 63-74

Abstract

Problem statement: The present investigation described a simple and reproducible protocol for transgenic cotton regeneration and characterization of chitinase (Chi II) gene expression against two different fungal pathogens in cotton. Approach: Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. SVPR2) plants were produced by pCambia-bar-Chi II (13.8 kb) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, harbored in the strain LBA 4404 Agrobacterium tumefaciens by using shoot tip explants. Results: Finally, from the 10 experiments, 21.8% of transformation frequency was recorded. Segregation ratio of 3:1 was recorded in the T0 plant seeds. Polymerase chain reaction and southern blotting analysis were used to confirm the integration of Chi II transgene in the T0 plants genome of putative transgenics. Quantitiave and qualitative (SDS-PAGE) analyses were also carried out to confirm the expression of chitinase enzyme in T0 plants. Further, randomly selected transgenic plants (T0) were analyzed for disease tolerance by evaluating them with spores of Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria macrospora. All the selected PCR positive plants showed enhanced disease resistance against Fusarium wilt. The plants selected randomly showed an enhanced survival rate compared with the control when they were grown in earthen pots inoculated with 1×105 spores 100-1 g of soil mixture. Another four randomly selected plantlets were sprayed with spores of Alternaria macrospora in order to test their tolerance to Alternaria leaf spot disease. After 20 days of culture, the number of lesions per leaf and the lesion length per leaf spot in non-transferred leaves increased. In the case of transgenic plantlets, lesion formation was completely absent. Conclusion: The disease resistance against Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot in cotton strains would serve as good breeding materials for producing fungal disease resistant cotton varieties.

Copyright

© 2009 M. Ganesan, P. Bhanumathi, K. Ganesh Kumari, A. Lakshmi Prabha, Pill-Soon Song and N. Jayabalan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.