American Journal of Applied Sciences

Architecture of an Ultra-Low-Power Fully Autonomous Universal Power Conditioner of Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review

Yeo Kim Heng, Md. Shabiul Islam, Susthitha Menon, Shafii Abdul Wahab and Sawal Hamid Md. Ali

DOI : 10.3844/ajassp.2016.326.334

American Journal of Applied Sciences

Volume 13, Issue 3

Pages 326-334

Abstract

A fully autonomous Universal Power Conditioner (UPC) that can accept energy from any micro-energy harvester (e.g., photovoltaic, thermoelectric, electromagnetic, piezoelectric etc.) is proposed. Generally, UPC removes the need of multiple optimized source specific converters. But, the proposed UPC architecture will be Ultra-Low-Power (ULP) with maximized efficiency to support the low energy levels generated by harvesting sources. This UPC uses a universal source detection block consisting of source converter block, boost converter, storage unit and buck regulation. A voltage threshold block reduces the energy processing stage. A kick-start circuit enables self-starting operation. A power management block achieves efficiency in energy storage and charge cycles. The UPC will be modeled, designed and simulated in PSPICE. A behavioral model will be designed and simulated on Modelsim. The UPC will be realized on FPGA board, validated and analyzed in layout using 0.13 µm CMOS process technology. The expected result is a feasible arbitrary input source detector capable of 2-3 different sources with minimum 1 mW output power for WSN nodes or charging battery sets. The power converters are expected to consume <100 µW at >90% peak efficiency with input dc voltage at 0.02-5 V and output dc voltage from 0.5-5 V.

Copyright

© 2016 Yeo Kim Heng, Md. Shabiul Islam, Susthitha Menon, Shafii Abdul Wahab and Sawal Hamid Md. Ali. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.