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Chaenomeles Sinensis: A Potent α-and β-Glucosidase Inhibitor

Problem statement: Glycosidase inhibitors are vital sources for the treatment of diabetes type II with a special importance in pharmacology, food industry and biotechnology, since for diabetes control, different diets and drugs, especially herbal medicines are recommended in this era. Approach: While screening for the potent natural glycosidase inhibitors, we found the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis (C. sinensis), as the most effective glycosidase inhibitor. The crude 80% methanolic extract of the fruits and its n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were further investigated for α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-galactosidase and β-galactosidase enzyme inhibition activities. Results: All the C. sinensis extracts showed remarkable α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase inhibitory activities (at a concentration of 5 μg 210 μL reaction-1) ranging from 82-99 and 5-85%, respectively. Among all the inhibition studies, n-butanol fraction demonstrated the highest (99%) α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, whereas minor α-galactosidase (18-35%) and β-galactosidase (10-34%) inhibitions were examined in all the fractions of C. sinensis. Conclusion: C. sinensis fruits may prove as potent natural anti-diabetic source with noteworthy α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase inhibitions, because the inhibition of these enzymes provide a strong biochemical basis for the management of type II diabetes by controlling glucose absorption. These results provide intense rationale for further animal and clinical studies.

Citation :
Sancheti, S., S. Sancheti and S. Seo, 2009. Chaenomeles Sinensis: A Potent α-and β-Glucosidase Inhibitor. Am. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 4: 8-11.
DOI: 10.3844/ajptsp.2009.8.11

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajptsp.2009.8.11

A Feasibility Study of Challenges and Opportunities in Computational Biology: A Malaysian Perspective

The term computational biology refers to the knowledge derived from a computer analysis of biological data that includes identification of genes in DNA sequence of different organisms, prediction of structural and functional mechanism of proteins, feature extraction and classification of genomics and proteomics. Computational biology is a rapidly developing branch of science and is highly interdisciplinary, using techniques and Concepts from informatics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, statistics and biochemistry. This field has risen in parallel with the developments of automated high throughput methods of biochemistry and biological discovery that yield a variety of forms of experimental data, such as DNA and RNA sequences, gene expressions patterns and chemical structures. The field’s rapid growth is spurred by the vast potential for new understanding that can lead to new technological treatments, new agro-crops cultivation and new pharmaceutical drug discovery. In the recent years, most Bioengineering disciplines are started adopting the information technology oriented curriculum due to its high performance computing, data interoperability, web-based platform compatibility and secured a suitable job opportunity. This study discusses the challenges to set up an interdisciplinary oriented curriculum by merging life sciences and information technology at a university level. It also provides the career opportunities for different life science disciplines like drug development, microbial genome applications, biotechnology, forensic and analysis of microbes.

Citation :
Richard, R.J.A. and N. Sriraam, 2005. A Feasibility Study of Challenges and Opportunities in Computational Biology: A Malaysian Perspective. Am. J. Applied Sci., 2: 1296-1300.
DOI: 10.3844/ajassp.2005.1296.1300

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajassp.2005.1296.1300

Analysis of Article 27(3) (b) of TRIPs-the Content and Implications of the IP Protection on Plant Varieties

Problem statement: Introduction of Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) to plant varieties has gone through some rough weather with objections being made not only with respect to their introduction but also with the type of protection to be accorded to the new varieties. Article 27(3)(b) of the TRIPs Agreement contains a lot of flexibilities as it allows WTO member states to choose the form of intellectual property protection and also the strength of IP protection. However, one of the primary effects of the provision is that it has forced a good number of the nations across the world to accord IPP to plant varieties where there existed none. The primary rationale given for the introduction of IPP in biotechnology is that it shall incentivise research in biotechnology which in turn shall help nations in building its food security. Conclusion: The study seeks to show that though the rationale has stood true to a good extent (as a lot of new plant varieties have been created by plant breeders in the past few decades that carry special traits resulting in an increase in the agricultural output and the quality of the produce). However, the research in plant varieties is often restricted to only a few crops that are commercially the most viable, hence, showing no change in the pattern of investment in the plant varieties even after the introduction of IPP. Moreover, after the introduction of Article 27(3) (b) (according of IPP to plant varieties and limiting the scope of imitation) there has seen large scale concentration and restructuring of the seeds industry all across the world. Further, the gradual substitution of traditional varieties by the modified plant varieties has also surfaced a whole host of other economic and environmental problems. These problems and holes in the incentive rationale thus justifies the counter measures taken by many nations such as farmer’s rights, origin disclosure requirements, incentivizing the use of traditional varieties by farmers, creation of seed’s banks, free exchange of germplasm.

Citation :
Jhunjhunwala, P., 2009. Analysis of Article 27(3) (b) of TRIPs-the Content and Implications of the IP Protection on Plant Varieties. Am. J. Econ. Bus. Admin., 1: 313-319.
DOI: 10.3844/ajebasp.2009.313.319

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajebasp.2009.313.319

Antibacterial Effect of Untreated and Treated (Decolorized) Dyes by Agricultural Wastes

Toxicity (antibacterial effect) of untreated and treated (decolorized) dyes on a soil bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. Low cost and easily available two agricultural residues (cotton stalk and apricot seed) as biosorbents were used to remove Astrazone Black and Astrazone Yellow from aqueous solution. The removal of these dyes with agricultural wastes reduced the toxic effect on P. aeruginosa. This reduction in toxic effect is important both in respect of environmental biotechnology and waste detoxification. This study showed that these agricultural byproducts can be used for decolorization and detoxification of dyes.

Citation :
Kahraman, S. and P. Yalcin, 2005. Antibacterial Effect of Untreated and Treated (Decolorized) Dyes by Agricultural Wastes. Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., 1: 50-53.
DOI: 10.3844/ajbbsp.2005.50.53

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajbbsp.2005.50.53

Bio-Safety Technology in Production of Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 (BoHV-5) Using an Alternative Serum-Free Medium

The detection and growth of bovine herpes virus type 5 (BoHV-5) was evaluated in three different media without foetal bovine serum or animal protein by infecting three different cell lines. The OPTI-PRO, VP-SFM and RPMI 1640 media were supplemented by L-glutamine, antibiotics added by 5μg of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and used to adapt CER, MDBK and CRIB cells in a statistic continuous culture system. The results obtained by CRIB and MDBK cells adaptation showed steady growth after 10th passages in OPTI-PRO medium, 20th passages in VP-SFM medium and 30th passages in RPMI 1640 medium, respectively. The OPTI-PRO and RPMI 1640 media were not able to support CER growth, even supplemented by IGF-1 and present apoptotic cells at 72h post-infection. The CER cells seeded after adaptation by 10th passages in VP-SFM medium added by 5μg/20ml of IGF-1 growth factor revealed the best virus titres compared to MDBK and CRIB cell lines. It was concluded that CER, MDBK and CRIB cells infected by BoHV-5 serotype could be used for laboratory diagnosis propagated on much safer culture system of high biotechnology advances.

Citation :
Cardoso, T.C., H.F. Ferrari, M.C.R. Luvizotto and C.W. Arns, 2007. Bio-Safety Technology in Production of Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 (BoHV-5) Using an Alternative Serum-Free Medium. Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., 3: 125-130.
DOI: 10.3844/ajbbsp.2007.125.130

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajbbsp.2007.125.130

Genetically Modified Organism Trade Route and Biosafety-Is It a Failing Synthesis?

Problem statement: GM regulations have spawned international conflicting reactions especially between US and EU, with countries requiring food aid caught midway. This article covers the following issues: Whether biotechnology policies of other countries affect the developing countries’ trade in agricultural crops?" Does unregulated GM expansion and contamination, render the system fallacious? Can there be synthesis between trade and environment? Approach: This article also explores "long term effects of trading substitute GM components. Extensive research has been followed to identify the key areas of international trade and environment pertaining to GMO’s which require immediate international attention. Results: The biotech war emerged with the Cartagena Protocol which permits countries to ban unsafe GM products and requires labeling of shipments that threaten traditional crops or biodiversity. In response to stricter stand of EU banning most GMOs, the US initiated litigation before WTO which in a preliminary ruling declared EU restriction violative of trade rules. Fear of export losses discourages Asia to approve new GMOs. U N reports that, Asia’s regulatory framework is flawed and large number of tests, required to approve GMO’s safe release are not conducted causing "irreversible loss of genetic diversity". Governments address these concerns differentially. Countries like Canada, China, and US incorporated GMOs commercially. While EU and Japan wait for full environmental assessment, the EU has issued a Directive on release and commercialization of GM crops. The EU view sharply contrasts to the WTO’s, whose contribution to sustainable development of the environment lies in trade opening in goods and innovations like GM crops. WTO does not accept the process of production as cause for trade restrictions, narrowly interpreting the exception to trade rules under Article XX. International regulations on GMOs, (considered similar to harmful agricultural crops) are undefined. Before NAFTA, corporations are challenging these as "barriers to trade" while Environmentalists are advocating the "precautionary principle". Conclusion/Recommendations: The current climate of controversy in such key aspects across the world complicates the possibility of synthesis of trade and bio safety of GM food. Furthermore, the concept of food aid ensures that GM trade remains prevalent and unchecked. Thus, the answer to the projected environmental damage through such passage and the co-existence of trade laws alongside bio-safety demands an alteration in national as well as WTO legislations. This article attempts to evaluate the possibilities of a legislative make-over and the nuances of environmental safeguards against the proposed problems.

Citation :
Dobe, D. and R. Sen, 2009. Genetically Modified Organism Trade Route and Biosafety-Is It a Failing Synthesis? Am. J. Econ. Bus. Admin., 1: 206-212.
DOI: 10.3844/ajebasp.2009.206.212

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajebasp.2009.206.212

Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers

This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31). Highest level of Nei's[1] gene diversity value (0.4898) was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.

Citation :
Rahman, M.A., S.M.M. Rahman, M.A. Jalil, S.N. Uddin and M.M. Rahman, 2006. Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers. Am. J. Anim. Vet. Sci., 1: 17-22.
DOI: 10.3844/ajavsp.2006.17.22

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajavsp.2006.17.22

Perceptions of Commercialization Activities of Research Results among Academic Researchers in Malaysia

Problem statement: This study discusses the results of a survey conducted on academic researchers working on biotechnology related research from four leading research universities in Malaysia. The analyses used in this study are essentially exploratory and broadly seeks to address the research question of interest, i.e., to document any differences in opinion between demographic backgrounds group. Approach: Factor analysis and reliability tests were conducted to identify dimensions of commercialization activities and to determine statistical reliability of the dimensions. Subsequently, a series of one-way ANOVA tests were conducted to examine whether perceptions on commercialization activities results differ based on the demographic background of the researchers. Results: The result of this study revealed significant differences in perceptions on commercialization initiatives particularly with regards to years of research experience, experience as administrator/top level management at university level and job status. Conclusion/Recommendation: Qualitative studies were recommended to complement this exploratory study.

Citation :
Yaacob, N.A., A.M. Rasli, A.A. Senin and S.N. Othman, 2011. Perceptions of commercialization activities of research results among academic researchers in Malaysia. Am. J. Econ. Bus. Admin., 3: 24-32.
DOI: 10.3844/ajebasp.2011.24.32

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajebasp.2011.24.32

Potentials and challenges of Participation in Agricultural Biotechnology R and D: A Case for National Agricultural Research Capacity Building

Problem statement: Scientists in National Agricultural Research Institutes and University faculties of agriculture and veterinary medicine were surveyed to explore their participation in agricultural biotechnology research in Nigeria. Multistage sampling was used. Approach: Two Federal universities and two state universities were randomly selected from a list of Federal and State universities. In addition to these, one university each was selected from the four universities of Technology and three Federal universities of Agriculture. Results: Forty three scientists were purposively selected based on participation in agricultural biotechnology research. Nine research institutes were purposively selected based on their mandates. A total of 105 scientists were selected from the research institutes, based on their participation in agricultural biotechnology research. The total number of respondents from the selected amounted to 148. A structured questionnaire was used. Majority of the respondents fell within the medium participation category (63.5%). There is a significant relationship between availability of training/self development opportunities (r = 0.278, p<0.05) and career advancement opportunities (r = 0.348, p<0.05) and participation in agricultural biotechnology research. Inadequacy of electricity supply was significantly related to participation. Regression analysis show that human resources capacities available to scientists had positive relationship with participation in agricultural biotechnology research and development but only career advancement opportunities (r = 0.003, p<0.05) and royalties on findings (r = 0.151, p<0.05) were significant. Conclusion/Recommendations: There is need for strengthening both human resources and infrastructural capacity to increase participation in agricultural biotechnology research in Nigeria.

Citation :
Adekoya, A.E. and T.A. Adisa, 2010. Potentials and challenges of Participation in Agricultural Biotechnology R and D: A Case for National Agricultural Research Capacity Building. Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., 6: 47-53.
DOI: 10.3844/ajbbsp.2010.47.53

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajbbsp.2010.47.53

Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles by Tryptophane

Problem statement: Preparation and synthesis of gold nanoparticles with small size and suitable stability is very important and applicable particularly in medicine. In this study, we have prepared gold nanoparticles by chemical reduction method employing L-Tryptophane as a reducing agent for ionic gold. Approach: The gold nanoparticles are the most employed amongst the different metallic nanoparticles in the fields of nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology. Therefore, the employed method should provide suitable particle size, shape and particle distribution in order to obtain nanoparticles of high activity and efficiency indicating the importance of the technique. In this study, HAuCl4 .3H2O, L-Tryptophane and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) were used to produce AuCl-4 ions. They were acted as pre-material, reducing and stabilizing agents respectively. Results: The size, distribution and formation of gold nanoparticles were confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) indicating the diameter of gold nanoparticles at the range of 10-25 nm and UV spectroscopy. The formed nanoparticles showed the highest absorption at 518 nm. Conclusion: The gold nanoparticles were stable in PEG1000. Since these nanoparticles have suitable size distribution they can be considered as a suitable candidate to be employed in nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology.

Citation :
Akbarzadeh, A., D. Zare, A. Farhangi, M.R. Mehrabi and D. Norouzian et al., 2009. Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles by Tryptophane. Am. J. Applied Sci., 6: 691-695.
DOI: 10.3844/ajassp.2009.691.695

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajassp.2009.691.695

Towards a Theory and View of Teaching Compressed and Abbreviated Research Methodology and Statistics Courses

One of the highly questionable effects of educational reform and other curriculum reshaping factors at both the high school, post-secondary and graduate levels has been the shift to teaching compressed, pared-down or abbreviated courses in still needed or required subject-matter that became de-emphasized in the current educational reformation. Research methodology, particularly the highly quantitative and experimental kind and statistics, are two still needed to some degree subject matters that has been especially affected by this demotion and compression movement at the pre-service, in-service, professional development, undergraduate, continuing education and graduate levels, even though the professional areas of education, science, business, politics and most other areas (including history) have become far more quantitative and objective research oriented than in the past. Until there are more enlightened policy shifts, effective means of teaching such compressed courses need to be devised and tested, if only to lessen the negative outcomes of such critical courses. This article, therefore, analyzes compressed courses from the point of view of cognitive learning and then describes 5 methods and approaches that were tested to improve the effectiveness of research methodology and statistics courses taught in these formats. Each of the formats helped to reduce student stress and anxiety about the content and its compressed presentation and improved understanding and achievement. The theory and view developed in this article is also applicable to similar compressed courses for scientific and/or technical content which are currently prevalent in allied health and biotechnology areas.

Citation :
Carifio, J. and L. Erikson, 2007. Towards a theory and view of teaching compressed and abbreviated research methodology and statistics courses. J. Soc. Sci., 3: 250-259.
DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2007.250.259

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/jssp.2007.250.259

Unconventional Approach for Demineralization of Deproteinized Crustacean Shells for Chitin Production

Chitin is a versatile environmentally friendly modern material. It has a wide range of applications in areas such as water treatment, pulp and paper, biomedical devices and therapies, cosmetics, membrane technology and biotechnology and food applications. Crustacean waste is the most important chitin source for commercial use. Demineralization is an important step in the chitin purification process from crustacean waste. The conventional method of demineralization includes the use of strong acid (commonly HCl) that harms the physiochemical properties of chitin, results in a harmful effluent wastewater and increases the cost of chitin purification process. The current study proposes the use of organic acids (lactic and acetic) produced by cheese whey fermentation to demineralize microbially deproteinized shrimp shells. The effects of acid type, demineralization condition, retention time and shells to acid ratio were investigated. The study showed that the effectiveness of using lactic and/or acetic acids for demineralization of shrimp shells was comparable to that of using hydrochloric acid. Using organic acids for demineralization is a promising concept, since organic acids are less harmful to the environment, can preserve the characteristics of the purified chitin and can be produced from low cost biomass such as cheese whey. In addition, the resulted organic salts from the demineralization process can be used as a food preservative and/or an environmentally friendly de-icing/anti-icing agents.

Citation :
Mahmoud, N.S., A.E. Ghaly and F. Arab, 2007. Unconventional Approach for Demineralization of Deproteinized Crustacean Shells for Chitin Production. Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., 3: 1-9.
DOI: 10.3844/ajbbsp.2007.1.9

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajbbsp.2007.1.9

Bioethics Principles in the Teaching of Climate Change

Problem statement: Bioethics is the philosophical study of the ethical controversies about humans and his environment. Bioethicists are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, philosophy, theology and climate change. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of using bioethics resources as teaching tool in the teaching of climate change at tertiary level. Approach: This is done through assessing the extent of bioethics knowledge acquired in the learning process and how bioethics principles affect respondents thinking and opinions. The research employs a qualitative analysis of the data that is collected through pre-and post-tests and from feedback solicited through discussions with respondents. Some 100 university undergraduate students participated in this study. Results: The findings reveal that through the use of bioethics resources in teaching climate change, respondents' showed increased comprehension of bioethics knowledge and greater appreciation of its principles. Conclusion: Therefore the study concludes that the use of bioethics resources can accentuate the importance of bioethics principles in the understanding and in the provision of ethical framework in dealing with climate changes issues and mitigation initiatives. This research finding can be a useful source of information for scholars and researchers developing teaching strategies using bioethics resources.

Citation :
Moorthy, R., E.A. Choy, S. Selvadurai and N. Lyndon, 2011. Bioethics principles in the teaching of climate change. Am. J. Applied Sci., 8: 962-966.
DOI: 10.3844/ajassp.2011.962.966

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajassp.2011.962.966

Molecular Medicine-Prospects and Challenges

Drug discovery and development is a process that rationally leads to instigation of compound or formulation for the treatment of particular disease/diseased condition by acting on its specific target (s). Most of the drugs identified by conventional drug discovery process were as a result of unsystematic, random and serendipitous approach. Enhancement of knowledge in the field of biotechnology, molecular biology and medicinal chemistry improved the basic understanding of disease mechanism, mechanism of drug action resulting in a paradigm shift in drug discovery approach towards development of targeted drug discovery. Currently, molecular medicine encompassing elucidation of the genetic basis of disease, diagnosis of the disease and the design of an appropriate approach to disease management or therapy, promises to be an effective strategy for modern drug discovery. The change in approach resulted in improvement in target innovation, however doesn’t impact the rate of NMEs approved. The challenges limiting the drug discovery and prospects offered by molecular medicine and reverse pharmacology for its improvement were discussed in this review.

Citation :
Ramchand, C.N., R. Sripathy, N. Somashekara, A. Buch and H. Pant et al., 2012. Molecular medicine-prospects and challenges. Am. J. Infect. Dis., 8: 19-25.
DOI: 10.3844/ajidsp.2012.19.25

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajidsp.2012.19.25

Development of Transgenic Maize using Immature Embryos of HiII Genotype as a Vaccine Candidate

Problem statement: Plant-based vaccines posses some advantages over other types of vaccine biotechnology such as safety, low cost of mass vaccination programs and wider use of vaccines for veterinary medicine. These study was undertaken to develop the transgenic maize as edible vaccine candidate for animals. Approach: The immature embryos of HiII genotype were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain C58C1 containing the binary vector V622. The vector was harbored nptII gene, which confers resistance to paromomycin and ApxIIA gene was produced ApxII toxin, which was generated in various serum types of A. pleuropneumoniae as a target gene. Results: The 1,027 immature embryos were immersed for 5 min in the Agrobacterium solution and then these were co-cultured on solid co-cultivation medium at 28°C for 2 days. After the delay period, the scutellum explants, axis removed embryos, were cultured on medium with 50 mg L-1 paromomycin for first 2 weeks and a paromomycin-resistant callus were sorted out on the selection medium with 100 mg L-1 paromomycin for 4×14 days. A total of twenty callus clones were selected and sixteen-putative transgenic plants were regenerated. Among them, only five plants contained the integrated nptII gene, which was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that the nptII and ApxIIA genes integrated into the maize genome and that transgenic maizes can be use as vaccine candidate.

Citation :
Kim, H.A., S.Y. Kwon, H.S. Yoo, M.S. Yang and P.S. Choi, 2012. Development of transgenic maize using immature embryos of HiII genotype as a vaccine candidate. Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., 8: 21-24.
DOI: 10.3844/ajbbsp.2012.21.24

PDF Link : https://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajbbsp.2012.21.24