Research Article Open Access

BOOM: Rainbow’s Gravity as the Source of Light Refraction

Mohsen Lutephy1
  • 1 Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran


On the fully variable light speed (VSL) universe derived by alliance of Mach inertia principle and Planck’s quantized natural units and generalized Minkowski metric, it is extracted the fundamental equation of variable light speed called here Alpha Genesis Prime. Then the fundamental gravity is defined as a vector to justify the light speed variation accordingly. Gravitational vector via a tangential component does set the light speed to be matched with the Alpha Genesis Prime and according to the Pythagorean Theorem; it has also a component normalized to the light velocity. Interestingly by the gravity divided to the tangent and normal components relative to the light velocity we argue the Snell’s law of the light refraction and we find that dependency of the refractive index to the volume density is not fundamental but fundamentally the refractive index follows gravitational potential in bound quantum systems. The gravity is enhanced in bound quantum systems extended from Femto-scale (Nucleuses and strong nuclear force), Micro-gravity (fundamental rainbow’s gravity), the galaxies and clusters as the large scale bound quantum systems, up to the observable universe which the variable gravitational G is Newtonian (constant G in short cosmic time). The refraction of the light is sourced potentially by Rainbow’s gravity in bound quantum systems which the potential integration domain is limited to the wavelength of the photons. Quantum mechanically the photons are force carrier in the range of their wavelength to enhance gravitational G inasmuch as large that atoms to bend the photons similar to enhanced gravity in the nucleuses in the range of hadron wavelengths. Reestablish of the Newtonian mechanics yields to the fundamental gravity which is identical with the refraction of the light and we find that the mechanical potential of the light’s refraction is the gravity.


Ali, A. F., Faizal, M., & Majumder, B. (2015). Absence of an effective Horizon for black holes in Gravity’s Rainbow. Europhysics Letters, 109(2), 20001.
Ali, A. F., & Khalil, M. M. (2015). A proposal for testing gravity’s rainbow. Europhysics Letters, 110(2), 20009.
Amelino-Camelia, G., Ellis, J., Mavromatos, N. E., & Nanopoulos, D. V. (1997). Distance Measurement and Wave Dispersion in a Liouville-String Approach to Quantum Gravity. International Journal of Modern Physics A, 12(3), 607–623.
Amelino-Camelia, G., Ellis, J., Mavromatos, N. E., Nanopoulos, D. V., & Sarkar, S. (1998). Tests of quantum gravity from observations of γ-ray bursts. Nature, 393, 763–765.
Amelino-Camelia, G., Freidel, L., Kowalski-Glikman, J., & Smolin, L. (2011). Principle of relative locality. Physical Review D, 84(8), 084010.
Antoniadis, I., Arkani-Hamed, N., Dimopoulos, S., & Dvali, G. (1998). New dimensions at a millimeter to a fermi and superstrings at a TeV. Physics Letters B, 436(3–4), 257–263.
Awad, A., Ali, A. F., & Majumder, B. (2013). Nonsingular rainbow universes. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2013(10), 052.
Banks, T., & Fischler, W. (1999). A model for high energy scattering in quantum gravity. ArXiv, 9906038.
Barrow, J. D., & Magueijo, J. (2013). Intermediate inflation from rainbow gravity. Physical Review D, 88(10), 103525.
Chatrchyan, S., Khachatryan, V., Sirunyan, A. M., Tumasyan, A., Adam, W., Aguilo, E., & Stoykova, S. (2012). Search for dark matter and large extra dimensions in monojet events in pp collisions at √s=7TeV. Journal of High Energy Physics, 2012(9), 1–37.
Chatrchyan, S., Lehti, S., & Hindrichs, O. (2012). Search for microscopic black holes in pp collisions at $\sqrt {s} = {\text{7TeV}}$. Journal of High Energy Physics, 2012(4), 1–36.
da Rocha, R., & Coimbra-Araújo, C. H. (2006). Extra dimensions at the CERN LHC via mini-black holes: Effective Kerr-Newman brane-world effects. Physical Review D, 74(5), 055006.
Dimopoulos, S., & Landsberg, G. (2001). Black Holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Physical Review Letters, 87(16), 161602.
Emparan, R., Horowitz, G. T., & Myers, R. C. (2000). Black Holes Radiate Mainly on the Brane. Physical Review Letters, 85(3), 499.
Feng, Z.-W., & Yang, S.-Z. (2018). Rainbow Gravity Corrections to the Entropic Force. Advances in High Energy Physics, 2018, 1–8.
Galán, P., & Marugán, G. A. M. (2004). Quantum time uncertainty in a gravity’s rainbow formalism. Physical Review D, 70(12), 124003.
Garattini, R. (2013). Distorting general relativity: gravity’s rainbow and f(R) theories at work. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2013(06), 017.
Garattini, R., & Majumder, B. (2014a). Electric charges and magnetic monopoles in Gravity’s Rainbow. Nuclear Physics B, 883, 598–614.
Garattini, R., & Majumder, B. (2014b). Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity. Nuclear Physics B, 884, 125–141.
Garattini, R., & Mandanici, G. (2012). Particle propagation and effective space-time in gravity’s rainbow. Physical Review D, 85(2), 023507.
Giddings, S. B., & Thomas, S. (2002). High energy colliders as black hole factories: The end of short distance physics. Physical Review D, 65(5), 056010.
Gim, Y., & Kim, W. (2014). Thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2014(10), 003.
Hackett, J. (2006). Asymptotic flatness in rainbow gravity. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 23(11), 3833.
Hendi, S. H., Eslam Panah, B., Panahiyan, S., & Momennia, M. (2016). Gravity’s Rainbow and Its Einstein Counterpart. Advances in High Energy Physics, 2016, 1–21.
Hessaby, M. (1947). Continuous Particles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 33(6), 189–194.
Hessaby, M. (1948). Theoretical Evidence for the Existence of a Light-Charged Particle of Mass Greater than That of the Electron. Physical Review, 73(9), 1128.
Leiva, C., Saavedra, J., & Villanueva, J. (2009). Geodesic structure of the Schwarzschild black hole in rainbow gravity. Modern Physics Letters A, 24(18), 1443–1451.
Li, H., Ling, Y., & Han, X. (2009). Modified (A)dS Schwarzschild black holes in rainbow spacetime. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 26(6), 065004.

Physics International
Volume 12 No. 1, 2021, 11-22


Submitted On: 16 July 2021 Published On: 23 December 2021

How to Cite: Lutephy, M. (2021). BOOM: Rainbow’s Gravity as the Source of Light Refraction. Physics International, 12(1), 11-22.

  • 0 Citations



  • Quantum Gravity
  • Cosmology
  • Planck Units
  • Planck Stars
  • Machian Universe
  • Variable Light Speed
  • Quantization of the Space-Time