Research Article Open Access

Finite Bounded Expanding Carmelian White Hole Universe Without Dark Matter

John Gideon Hartnett1
  • 1 University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
Physics International
Volume 3 No. 2, 2012, 58-63


Submitted On: 18 January 2013 Published On: 7 May 2013

How to Cite: Hartnett, J. G. (2012). Finite Bounded Expanding Carmelian White Hole Universe Without Dark Matter. Physics International, 3(2), 58-63.


The solution of Einstein’s field equations in Cosmological General Relativity (CGR), where the Galaxy is at or cosmologically near the center of a finite yet bounded spherically symmetrical isotropic gravitational field, is identical with the unbounded solution. I show that this leads to the conclusion that the Universe may be viewed as a finite expanding white hole. The fact that CGR has been successful in describing the distance modulus verses redshift data of the high-redshift type Ia supernovae means that the data cannot be used to distinguish between unbounded models and those with finite bounded radii of at least cτ (≅ cH0-1). According to Carmelian theory, I further show that whether or not the Universe is finite bounded or unbounded it is spatially flat at the current epoch and has been at all past epochs where it as matter dominated.

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  • Cosmology
  • Cosmological General Relativity
  • Finite Universe