Review Article Open Access

SARS-CoV-2-Induced Damage on the Cardiovascular System: Molecular Mechanisms

Mel·lina Pinsach-Abuin1 and Ramon Brugada Terradellas1
  • 1 Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Girona, Spain

Abstract

Since its emergence in late December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - has spread rapidly world-wide, becoming a global pandemic in March 2020 that is still active. In addition to the severe pulmonary damage, clinical studies have reported that COVID-19 is associated with the development of cardiovascular alterations such as myocardial injury, particularly in its most severe manifestations. At the same time, pre-existing cardiovascular conditions in COVID-19 cases have been related to an increased risk of adverse outcomes. To date, several mechanisms have been described to participate in the development of cardiovascular damage related to COVID-19, including direct SARS-CoV-2 infection of the cardiovascular system, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) downregulation, cytokine storm, coagulation abnormalities, hypoxia and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the large amount of information gathered so far makes it difficult to keep up with this new pandemic. In the present review, we provide a clear insight of the extensive literature available and summarize the current understanding of COVID-19-related mechanisms behind SARS-CoV-2-induced damage to the cardiovascular system.

American Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume 17 No. 3, 2021, 150-160

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajidsp.2021.150.160

Submitted On: 2 March 2021 Published On: 25 November 2021

How to Cite: Pinsach-Abuin, M. & Terradellas, R. B. (2021). SARS-CoV-2-Induced Damage on the Cardiovascular System: Molecular Mechanisms. American Journal of Infectious Diseases, 17(3), 150-160. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajidsp.2021.150.160

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Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2 Infection
  • COVID-19
  • ACE2
  • Cytokine Storm
  • Myocardial Injury