Research Article Open Access

Using Thermal Infrared Imagery (TIR) for Illustrating the Submarine Groundwater Discharge into the Eastern Shoreline of the Dead Sea-Jordan

Emad Akawwi, Abdallah Al-Zouabi, Maher Kakish, Fredrich Koehn and Martin Sauter

Abstract

Many of thermal anomalies that are indicator of discharge zones of warmer water were observed along the Dead Sea shoreline at the areas of Zarka Ma’in, Zara and Al-Mujeb. The groundwater discharge locations were mapped along eastern shores of the Dead Sea by using aerial thermal infrared imagery (λ = 8-13 µm). A digital thermal infrared camera was used for this purpose in December 2005 at the nighttime. The principle of using this method is depending on the difference of the temperature between the sea surface water and the groundwater. The average groundwater temperature in the Dead Sea area is about 33 centigrade. It discharges into the cooler Dead Sea water 12 centigrade. The temperatures of the mixing two types of water (the discharge and the Dead Sea Water) were about 26 centigrade at some spots. These increasing of the Dead Sea temperatures are due to the groundwater discharge. The groundwater discharge was identified by thermal infrared images surveys. The survey provides sharp images of the shoreline of the Dead Sea (pixel size of about 4-5 m).

American Journal of Environmental Sciences
Volume 4 No. 6, 2008, 693-700

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajessp.2008.693.700

Submitted On: 24 April 2008 Published On: 31 December 2008

How to Cite: Akawwi, E., Al-Zouabi, A., Kakish, M., Koehn, F. & Sauter, M. (2008). Using Thermal Infrared Imagery (TIR) for Illustrating the Submarine Groundwater Discharge into the Eastern Shoreline of the Dead Sea-Jordan. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4(6), 693-700. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajessp.2008.693.700

  • 3,361 Views
  • 4,096 Downloads
  • 24 Citations

Download

Keywords

  • Jordan
  • thermal infrared
  • Dead Sea
  • discharge