Research Article Open Access

Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-based Polyurethane Polymers

Jahangir Emrani1, Ramazan Benrashid1, Shahrzad Mohtarami1, Ellie Fini1 and Taher Abu-Lebdeh1
  • 1 North Carolina A&T State University, United States


This paper describes the development of new biobased Polyurethanes (PU) starting from swine manure bio-resin and diisocyanates. The bio-resin is produced from swine manure via a hydrothermal process. For sustainability, today, many PUs in new specialized applications, are biobased. In this study, different commercial diisocyanates including MDI, Desmodur W, Desmodur H and Demodur I and swine manure, which is an agricultural waste were used to make the biobased PUs. The reactions were performed at refluxing THF, or in neat form at temperatures that ranged from room temperature to 100°C. Dibutyltin dilaurate was used as catalyst for the polymerization. Composites were characterized by FTIR, GPC, ICP and Rheometry. GPC confirmed the increase in the size of the molecules consistent with the increase in the viscosity and complex modulus of the reaction mixtures as a function of reaction time. One composite reached to elastic modulus of 10 MP at the end of the reaction process, which was marked by depletion of isocyanates peak in the IR. Progress of the polymerization reaction was monitored by the disappearance of the isocyanate band in the IR at ~2274 cm-1. By monitoring the FTIR spectra of the reaction mixtures while increasing MDI dosage in a step-wise manner, the number of the molar equivalents of the functional groups active towards isocyanate (including OH, H2S, NH2 and COOH) in the bioresin was also determined.

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Volume 11 No. 4, 2018, 1298-1309


Submitted On: 6 November 2018 Published On: 28 November 2018

How to Cite: Emrani, J., Benrashid, R., Mohtarami, S., Fini, E. & Abu-Lebdeh, T. (2018). Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-based Polyurethane Polymers. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(4), 1298-1309.

  • 11 Citations



  • Polymer
  • Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
  • Curing
  • Mechanical Properties
  • Rheology