Research Article Open Access

Understanding Hybrid Additive Manufacturing of Functional Devices

Santosh Kumar Parupelli1 and Salil Desai1
  • 1 North Carolina A&T State University, United States


The fabrication of electronic components in three-dimensional space is critical for building multifunctional devices. Traditional manufacturing approaches are limited to building planar device configurations. In order to address this limitation, our group has developed a novel hybrid additive manufacturing process that can deposit multi-material patterns on conformal substrates. This direct-write approach involves the combination of microextrusion, pico jet and laser systems. A multi-axis robot was employed to deposit slurries and colloids of conductive materials on different substrates. Fine deposition of the slurries was achieved by tuning the process parameters such as deposition line speed, extrusion pressure, curing temperature, Z-height, laser beam spot, material type and laser intensity. Precise deposition of the medium viscous colloidal liquids was achieved by pico jet unit. Sintering of the micro/nano particles was achieved using a fiber optic laser system and micro wave furnace. The conductance of the deposited electrical trace varied based on the material type and trace cross-section area. This research lays the foundation to build a three-dimensional hierarchy of electronic components. By embedding components at various depths and orientations complex electronic circuitry with versatile material compositions and design flexibility can be fabricated in situ.

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Volume 10 No. 1, 2017, 264-271


Submitted On: 9 March 2017 Published On: 20 March 2017

How to Cite: Parupelli, S. K. & Desai, S. (2017). Understanding Hybrid Additive Manufacturing of Functional Devices. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(1), 264-271.

  • 19 Citations



  • 3D Printing
  • Hybrid Additive Manufacturing
  • Direct-Write Technique
  • Functional Electronics
  • In Situ Laser Curing