Research Article Open Access

Spatial-Functional Analysis of Kurdish Courtyard Houses in Erbil City

Faris Ali Mustafa1 and Ahmad Sanusi Hassan2
  • 1 Salahaddin University-Hawler, Iraq
  • 2 University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia


Problem statement: This study was to analyze the concept of spatial-function in courtyard house layout and its influence to the cultural and social activities. Themes such as integration, segregation, accessibility and zoning of the building space layout are required to be deliberated, in order to achieve further understanding about the Kurdish social and cultural benchmarks (norms) that might have affected by the spatial configuration of the house layouts. Approach: The study was based on the analysis from selected samples of courtyard house layouts in Erbil city, through adopting the theory of space syntax and its techniques (gamma analysis method). The purpose was to interpret and identify the mutual relationship between space and social life through both scales of spatial-functional analysis. Functionally, illustration and classification of the key zones and sectors of the house; spatially, measuring the main syntactic characteristics of spatial systems (house layouts)and translating it to numerical data in order to identify their effect that forming spatial patterns. Results: The functional approach for the design of residential spaces had a clear impact on the method of formation and organization of residential spaces (functional sectors) through the indicators of physical and intellectual change that affected the nature of spontaneous social interaction in the traditional Kurdish courtyard houses in the city of Erbil. Conclusion: Social variables and factors stemming from the customs and traditions of the community have a direct impact on the residential function through the way of forming and configuration of its interior spaces, which had supported by discovering Genotypic spatial-functional patterns of house layouts (study sample).

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Volume 3 No. 3, 2010, 560-568


Submitted On: 27 June 2008 Published On: 30 September 2010

How to Cite: Mustafa, F. A. & Hassan, A. S. (2010). Spatial-Functional Analysis of Kurdish Courtyard Houses in Erbil City. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(3), 560-568.

  • 6 Citations



  • Space syntax
  • courtyard house
  • gamma analysis
  • house layout