Research Article Open Access

Engineering of Ground for Liquefaction Mitigation Using Granular Columnar Inclusions: Recent Developments

A. Murali Krishna1 and M.R. Madhav2
  • 1 Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India
  • 2 Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, India


Problem statement: Liquefaction was the most hazardous damage during an earthquake. Ground improvement techniques were employed to mitigate liquefaction hazards. Most common methods to improve engineering properties of soils are densification, reinforcement, grouting/mixing and drainage. Among various remedial measures available, installation of columnar granular inclusions is the most widely adopted method for liquefaction mitigation. Approach: Columnar granular inclusions function as drains and permit rapid dissipation of earthquake induced pore pressures by virtue of their high permeability. Results: One of the chief benefits of ground treatment with granular piles is the densification of in situ ground by which the in-situ properties of the ground get modified to mitigate liquefaction potential. Further, the very high deformation modulus and stiffness of the granular pile material provide reinforcement for the in situ soil and offer another mechanism to mitigate liquefaction. The study described briefly the phenomenon of liquefaction and the associated features. A short discussion on various ground improvement methods available for liquefaction mitigation was presented highlighting the importance of columnar inclusions. Construction methods of different granular columnar inclusions like sand compaction piles/ granular piles were discussed briefly. Recent developments in the research of columnar granular inclusions as liquefaction counter measures were presented in relation to physical, numerical and analytical model studies. Conclusion/Recommendations: Columnar granular inclusions were demonstrated to be very effective for liquefaction mitigation in different case studies and research investigations.

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Volume 2 No. 3, 2009, 526-536


Submitted On: 15 May 2009 Published On: 30 September 2009

How to Cite: Krishna, A. M. & Madhav, M. (2009). Engineering of Ground for Liquefaction Mitigation Using Granular Columnar Inclusions: Recent Developments . American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2(3), 526-536.

  • 9 Citations



  • Liquefaction
  • mitigation
  • columnar inclusions
  • granular piles
  • stone columns
  • analytical/numerical studies