Natural Repellent Anthraquinone Applied on Cereal Grain Seeds and Seedlings Against Pigeons (Columba livia) in Captivity
- 1 Education Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Phetchabun, Thailand
- 2 Environmental Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Phetchabun, Thailand
This research aims to test the effects of cassia leaf extract on the eating behavior of pigeons for application as a natural repellent. Senna siamea (Cassia) leaves were oven-dried and blended into fine pieces and processed by the simplest extraction method (maceration) with ethyl alcohol 70% solution and were then extracted with hot continuous extraction (Soxhlet extraction) with ethyl alcohol 70% solution. Cereal grain seeds were prepared and soaked in the extracts of the 2 methods in 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5% concentrations for 24 h. Twenty-four pigeons were prepared with one cage per pigeon. Cereal grains were weighed to 20 grams, which was fed to the pigeons for 24 h and the beginning weight of the cereal grains and the weight of the leftovers were recorded. The food consumption was analyzed to determine the differences among the averages of each method with one-way ANOVA. The findings showed that the averages of the bird food intake based on the maceration method were not different with a statistical significance (p>0.05), while the averages of the bird food intake based on Soxhlet extraction were different with a statistical significance (p<0.05). The bird food processed by the Soxhlet extraction method had a lower average consumption than that of the maceration method.
Copyright: © 2019 Kan Khoomsab and Itsara Tangsuwan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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- Natural Repellents
- Senna siamea