Research Article Open Access

Soil Formation by Ecological Factors: Critical Review

Saeed Zeraat Kar1 and Aydin Berenjian2
  • 1 Faculty of Soil Science, Kharkov National Agrarian University, Ukraine
  • 2 School of Chemical and Bimolecular Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Sydney, Australia


Regolith is the term we give parent material that has been weathered. The regolith consists of weathered bedrock near the surface including the soil layer. In the Iranian soil layer we will find: decayed parent materials, decaying plant material, decaying animal matter (manure) along with vegetation. Results of the present study show us that methods stimulating natural fertility in Iran includes composting-adds humus layer, drip irrigation-balances illuviation and eluviation in arid regions, crop rotation/ intercropping-reflects natural diversity and limits gleization, add lime-reduces gleization, non-cultivation techniques-reduces hard pan (calcification) caused by compaction and reduce pesticide use-keeps decomposers alive in humus layer.

American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Volume 8 No. 2, 2013, 114-116


Submitted On: 11 March 2013 Published On: 2 April 2013

How to Cite: Kar, S. Z. & Berenjian, A. (2013). Soil Formation by Ecological Factors: Critical Review. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 8(2), 114-116.

  • 4 Citations



  • Soils
  • Regolith
  • Parent Materials
  • Organic Matter
  • Gleization