Research Article Open Access

Variables Refinery Process to Ensure Research Unbiasedness (Validity) and Invariance (Reliability) in Agricultural Extension and Education

Iraj Malek Mohammadi1
  • 1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

Abstract

Involving many variables, usually uncertain discrete, lowers the level of consistency and certainty in complex human studies like agricultural extension education. This research, as a part of a study entitled: Side by side situational analysis of current versus future situations of agricultural sector in manifesting the Ninth Malaysia Plan, is dealing primarily with the purpose and process of refining a set of uncertain independent variables to higher research validity and reliability. This investigation is quantitative in its nature, Applied in kind and design-wise, it is an Ex-Post-Facto analytical survey research. Eleven personal and professional characteristics of 224 agricultural experts were taken as independent and 158 attitudinal variables, measured based on dual (side-by-side) Likert scale, as dependent variables. Research population consisted of all agricultural experts including extension experts in Malaysia. As a result, 13 items (8.2% of the attitudinal questions) out of 157 were distinguished as impacted, moderate to very high sensitive variables to few personal characteristics and were eliminated in further data analysis. Applying this variable refinery method considerably increased construct and content validity as well as reliability of the research instrument and helped researcher to construct a rather impact-free side-by-side questionnaire.

American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Volume 3 No. 1, 2008, 342-347

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajabssp.2008.342.347

Submitted On: 19 August 2007 Published On: 31 March 2008

How to Cite: Mohammadi, I. M. (2008). Variables Refinery Process to Ensure Research Unbiasedness (Validity) and Invariance (Reliability) in Agricultural Extension and Education . American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 3(1), 342-347. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajabssp.2008.342.347

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Keywords

  • Variables refinery
  • variable reduction
  • validity and reliability
  • impact-free questionnaire