Physics International

Finite Bounded Expanding Carmelian White Hole Universe Without Dark Matter

John Gideon Hartnett

DOI : 10.3844/pisp.2012.58.63

Physics International

Volume 3, Issue 2

Pages 58-63


The solution of Einstein’s field equations in Cosmological General Relativity (CGR), where the Galaxy is at or cosmologically near the center of a finite yet bounded spherically symmetrical isotropic gravitational field, is identical with the unbounded solution. I show that this leads to the conclusion that the Universe may be viewed as a finite expanding white hole. The fact that CGR has been successful in describing the distance modulus verses redshift data of the high-redshift type Ia supernovae means that the data cannot be used to distinguish between unbounded models and those with finite bounded radii of at least cτ (≅ cH0-1). According to Carmelian theory, I further show that whether or not the Universe is finite bounded or unbounded it is spatially flat at the current epoch and has been at all past epochs where it as matter dominated.


© 2012 John Gideon Hartnett. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.