Antileishmanial and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plant Achillea santolina L.
Abdulkarim Dakah and Mohammed Maarrouf
OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences
Achillea santolina is medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine for gastrointestinal disorders, anti-inflammatory and anti-diuretic. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that about 350 million people are considered to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis especially among people living in the developing countries. This research will be the first time that evaluate antileishmanial activity of essential oils of A. santolina before and after flowering. Wild plants of Achillea santolina were collected from the Kalamoon Mountains in Syria before and after flowering. Essential oil of wild plants was identified by GC/MS analysis. The activity of essential oil was evaluated against five bacterial strains by well diffusion method and Promastigote lysis percentage was determined by an MTT assay. Chemical composition of essential oils of A. santolina was variable. According to our results the samples from Assal Al-ward and Deir Atiyah after flowering gave light yellow oils and the main constituents were Borneol 17.34% and Camphor 27.69% respectively. While the sample before flowering from Assal Al-ward gave blue oil due to presence Azulene 0.69% which absence in oils after flowering and the main component was 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl) 13.05%. The essential oil of A. santolina at concentration 30% after flowering from Deir Atyiah showed the highest inhibitory effect on Klebsiella pneumonia with diameter 21 mm. Also essential oil of A. santolina before flowering gave the highest antileishmanial activity with an IC50 value (56.17 μg/mL). The antileishmanial activity of oils from Achillea santolina before flowering was better than after flowering, in contrast the antibacterial activity of oils before flowering was less than after flowering. Depending on the results, the oils from plants before flowering It could be constitute a potential treatment in the future.
© 2019 Abdulkarim Dakah and Mohammed Maarrouf. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.