Research Article Open Access

Pharaonic or Ottoman in Modern Egyptian Culture: Consequences of Immigration

Dina Aly Ezzat1
  • 1 University of California Riverside, United States


It is often assumed by tourists and other visitors to Egypt that all or most aspects of Egyptian culture originated from the Pharaonic period or ancient Egyptians. This perception is, however, wrong as Egypt over the centuries experienced immigration and even occupation by outside powers who left their mark on the country. The aim or purpose of this paper was to trace the Turkish origins of modern Egyptian culture. Data for the paper were obtained through analysis of historical documents, interviews of historians, experts and other officials at the Ministry of Antiquity, visits to various sites, including famous buildings and other landmarks. It was concluded that in almost every major area of culture, including government organization, education, the courts, medicine, law and infrastructure Turkey heavily influenced Egypt. Many words used today in Egyptian Arabic are of Turkish origin. Conclusions derived were not meant to minimize Egyptian civilization, but to offer a fuller accounting of how many components of this civilization had Turkish origins.

Journal of Social Sciences
Volume 16 No. 1, 2020, 1-16


Submitted On: 24 February 2019 Published On: 11 January 2020

How to Cite: Ezzat, D. A. (2020). Pharaonic or Ottoman in Modern Egyptian Culture: Consequences of Immigration. Journal of Social Sciences, 16(1), 1-16.

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  • Culture
  • Egyptian Culture
  • Turkey
  • Ottormans
  • Immigration