Journal of Social Sciences

Sungai Mas and OC-EO Glass Beads: A Comparative Study

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd. Rahman and Adnan Jusoh

DOI : 10.3844/jssp.2012.22.28

Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 8, Issue 1

Pages 22-28


Problem statement: Sungai Mas, Kedah, Malaysia and OC-EO, Vietnam, was two of the Indo-Pacific beads making centre’s in Southeast Asia. The drawn monochrome glass beads or Indo-Pacific beads industry begun in Arikamedu, India since 200BC was identified by Ptolemy as Poduca Emporium, with the presence of a small colony of Roman merchants. Arikamedu was abandoned by the 3rd century and before it was abandoned, the bead making centre was transferred to three other sites by the 2nd century CE which are Sri Lanka, Klong Thom, Thailand and OC-EO, Vietnam. Sungai Mas served as Indo-Pacific beads making centre by the 6th century CE until 13th century CE. Therefore the objective of this research is to determine from the beads compositional aspect whether beads from Sungai Mas originated from OC-EO or not. This is to prove that Sungai Mas and OC-EO produce their own beads. Approach: The study approach is base on compositional aspect of the beads. Compositional aspects of the beads involve their major and trace elements. Secondary data involved major and trace elements of the beads from Sungai Mas and OC-EO were analyzed based on their percentage of total and concentration. Results: Based on major and trace elements content showed that Sungai Mas beads are differ from OC-EO beads. This can be seen from the high percentage of silica, silver and fluks in Sungai Mas beads compare to lower percentage of those elements in OC-EO beads. Conclusion: The results showed that Sungai Mas and OC-EO produced their own glass beads and they were two of the Indo-Pacific beads-making centre in Southeast Asia beginning from 2nd century CE to 13th century CE.


© 2012 Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd. Rahman and Adnan Jusoh. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.