Khaen: An Application of Isan Local Wisdom for Conservation Revitalization and Development of Raw Materials and Khaen Making for Value-Added Culture
Champadaeng Sithisak, Bunsom Yodmalee and Khaentaphon Samdaengdej
DOI : 10.3844/jssp.2009.257.260
Journal of Social Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 4
Problem statement: The electricity in recent time, the raw materials for making “Khaen” (Lao reed mouthorgan) were decreased. The Reed Mouthorgan manufacturing was a high wisdom heritance. The objective of this research was to study the following issues: (1) the history of Reed Mouthorgan musical instrument, raw material and Reed Mouthorgan manufacturing in Esan Region. (2) The state of problems in conserving, rehabilitating and developing the raw material and manufacturing Reed Mouthorgan in recent time. (3) The application of local wisdom in conserving, rehabilitating and developing raw material and Khaen Making for creating additional cultural value by collecting data from documents and field work information in Roi-et, Nakon-panom, Mookdahan, Kalasin, Jantaburi, Surin and Chiayapum Provinces by using technique in surveying, observing, interviewing and focus group discussion. Approach: The samples were 86 people. The research findings were presented by descriptive analysis. For the background and history of ancient musical instrument “Reed Organ” as the blowing type, it was found in many countries in Asia. For “Reed Organ” in Esan, there were evidences at wall painting and literature. Most of raw materials were from natural product and synthesis. The famous source of Reed Organ was in “Roi-ed Province. There was no evidence of the age it started. At Nakon-panom Province, it started about 70 years ago. The problem situations of conservation, rehabilitation and development of raw material. Making Khaen in the present time, the raw material, when natural resources was destroyed. Results: As a result, every kind of raw material using for manufacturing Reed Mouthorgan decreased until almost being in crisis. For the silver and bronze coin, the price were high and scarce. It would be lacked of in future. For the state of Reed Mouthorgan manufacturing, 8 Khaen makers were selected. It found that the Reed Mouth-organ manufacturers from Roi-ed and Nakon-panom had different techniques. The quality of Khaen sound included different strength and weak point. It was caused from their teachers’ knowledge transferring to them and their direct experience as a Reed Mouthorgan manufacturing. For the inheritance of Reed Mouthorgan manufacturer’s occupation, the application of local wisdom in conserving, rehabilitating and developing raw material and Reed Mouth-organ manufacturing in order to create additional cultural value. It found that the raw material from wood and plant could be reproduced by technique in cultivating seed, root, soaking a grafting in water and cultivating tissue. For raw material from animals, there were, for example, buffalo’s horn and elephant’ bone. This kind of raw material was based on the existence of both kinds of animals according to cultural relationship. For the dammar, it could be nurtured and reproduced. But, appropriate context should be chosen. For metal using for Reed Mouth-organ manufacturing for quality reed organ. When it was analyzed, found that the silver coin included metal for 99%. The bronze coin included copper for 95%, tin for 4% of tin and 1% of zinc. For Reed Mouth-organ manufacturing, the body of knowledge in selecting each manufacturer’s Reed Mouth-organ with better quality. For the cultural additional value aspect, it included 6 aspects: business aspect, social aspect, cultural aspect, Aesthetics aspect, inspirational aspect and environmental aspect. Conclusion/Recommendations: The research findings should be used in planning for solving problem of raw material shortage, for example, growing dammar, extending area for growing Ku Khaen Tree and cooperation for ordering metal to manufacture the valve of Khaen from factory in order to use in future. The workshop should be organized for the Khaen Manufacturers’ manufacturing in Esan Region since the famous Khaen Manufacturers had various kinds of knowledge and techniques. Most of them were old. So, sharing of knowledge was needed and it should be urgent performed as data base using for developing quality of Khaen musical instrument for both lines of manufacturers in the next generation. The workshop in cultivating dammar should be organized because it was the raw material nearly be in crisis before other things. Moreover, it was economic creature to increase the income in another way for community members. The content should be included in local curriculum as a part in planning for solving problem of raw material in manufacturing long period of quality Reed Mouthorgan.
© 2009 Champadaeng Sithisak, Bunsom Yodmalee and Khaentaphon Samdaengdej. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.