Research Article Open Access

An Examination of Factor Structure of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale in a Non-Clinical Persian Sample

Paul Slater1, Brendan Bunting1, Felicity Hasson1, Ahmed Mohammad Al-Smadi2, Omar Salem Gammouh2, Ala Ashour3 and Damian Jordan4
  • 1 Ulster University, Ireland
  • 2 American University of Madaba, Jordan
  • 3 Hashemite University, Jordan
  • 4 Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Ireland


The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale is an internationally used assessment tool for anxiety level however its acceptable factor structure remains fluid. The aim of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties and establish normative anxiety prevalence rates with a Persian randomized sample. A cross sectional survey was distributed to a randomised sample of adults (n = 1260) in the Middle East. A two-factor model was deemed the most statistically and theoretically appropriate measurement model. This represented a split between cognitive and physiological symptoms. Overall, 15.2% of respondents reported at least mild anxiety, with 2.3% experiencing severe anxiety. Lower anxiety scores on the scale were reported among males, the married, younger and higher educated people. The Hamilton Anxiety Scale continues to be a useful tool in the measurement of anxiety. The two factor model separates anxiety into two dimensions, cognitive and physiological aspects and both are highly correlated with each other suggesting a single overarching construct of anxiety. The two-factor model may help provide a better understanding of the effectiveness of different therapeutic techniques. The pooled prevalence of ADs in a non-clinical Persian sample was relatively lower than those of some other countries.

International Journal of Research in Nursing
Volume 10 No. 1, 2019, 1-9


Submitted On: 22 February 2019 Published On: 28 May 2019

How to Cite: Slater, P., Bunting, B., Hasson, F., Al-Smadi, A. M., Gammouh, O. S., Ashour, A. & Jordan, D. (2019). An Examination of Factor Structure of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale in a Non-Clinical Persian Sample. International Journal of Research in Nursing, 10(1), 1-9.

  • 1 Citations



  • Anxiety
  • Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale
  • Normative Data
  • Psychometrics