Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicological Assessment of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Bryophyllum Pinnatum (Lam.) in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Raymond Iduojemu Ozolua, Sylvester Eshiotseme Idogun and Glory Eshiagiamhe Tafamel
DOI : 10.3844/ajptsp.2010.145.151
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Volume 5, Issue 3
Problem statement: The aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum has been reported to possess antihypertensive, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and antiulcer properties among others. Being readily available and easy to cultivate, the use of the plant in herbal medicine has been on the increase. Although there are few toxicological reports on the extract, these have not been sufficiently extensive. We therefore designed this study in order to evaluate more extensively the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Approach: Oral and intraperitoneal (i.p) LD50 experiments were conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats. Other rats were given daily doses of 2 g kg-1 body weight (p.o) × 35 days at the end of which kidneys, hearts, spleen and blood/sera were obtained for weight, haematological and biochemical analyses. Results: While there was no death at a maximum acute dose of 5 g kg-1 body weight by the oral route, the intraperitoneal LD50 was 1.8 g kg-1 body weight. Subacute treatment did not significantly alter animal weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, fluid intake, hematological indices and the levels of AST, ALP and albumin. ALT level was significantly reduced (p<0.03) in the treated group. Total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin levels were not significantly altered in the treated group. Conclusion: The results point to the possible safety of the aqueous extract although more toxicological studies are needed to confirm this.
© 2010 Raymond Iduojemu Ozolua, Sylvester Eshiotseme Idogun and Glory Eshiagiamhe Tafamel. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.