American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Hormesis: Principles and Applications for Pharmacology and Toxicology

Edward J. Calabrese

DOI : 10.3844/ajptsp.2008.59.71

American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Volume 3, Issue 1

Pages 59-71


The present assessment places hormetic dose responses within an historical context, documenting its origin, rejection by the biomedical community during the early decades of the 20th due to its close association with homeopathy and its revitalization during the later decades of the past century as the biomedical and toxicological communities became very interested in low dose effects of drugs and environmental agents. Particular attention is directed to assessing the quantitative features of the hormetic dose response, its underlying mechanisms and its implications for drug development and environmental risk assessment.


© 2008 Edward J. Calabrese. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.