American Journal of Immunology

Color Doppler Evaluation of Isovolumetric Relaxation Time and of Signals Arising from Axons of the Median Nerve as a Means to Evaluate Mitochondrial Functionality in the Context of Immunotherapy of Cancer and Chronic Conditions Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Stefania Pacini and Marco Ruggiero

DOI : 10.3844/ajisp.2019.22.32

American Journal of Immunology

Volume 15, 2019

Pages 22-32


Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) arising from the disruption of mitochondrial respiration act as endogenous mutagens and tumor promoters. When production of ROS exceeds the capacity of DNA repair mechanisms, random mutations and aneuploidy ensue, thousands of genes become unbalanced and genetic/epigenetic chain reactions lead to progressive aneuploidy with only two outcomes: karyotypes so altered that are not viable or karyotypes of autonomous, immortal, cancer cells. Consistent with the concept that abnormalities of cellular respiration in mitochondria precede DNA alterations in the nucleus, transplant of normal mitochondria suppresses tumorigenesis and metastases in vitro and in vivo. However, the transplant of mitochondria is an experimental procedure that cannot be easily applied to clinical practice. In order to overcome this limitation, we designed a novel formula based on microbial chondroitin sulfate, vitamin D3 and ultrapure phosphatidylcholine, molecules that are known to restore mitochondrial functionality and suppress ROS production. Here we describe how such an approach can be evaluated by color Doppler ultrasonography of the radial artery and measure of the Isovolumetric Relaxation Time (IVRT). In addition, we show for the first time color Doppler signals originating from axons of the median nerve that may be indicative of quantum phenomena at the level of mitochondria. We propose the use of the original ultrasonographic techniques here described for evaluating the effectiveness of substances or strategies aimed at restoring mitochondrial functionality at the macroscopic and quantum levels.


© 2019 Stefania Pacini and Marco Ruggiero. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.