American Journal of Immunology

Botulinum Toxin as a Novel Addition to Anti-Arthritis Armamentarium

Hamid Namazi and Zahra Majd

DOI : 10.3844/ajisp.2005.94.95

American Journal of Immunology

Volume 1, Issue 2

Pages 94-95


Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease and is among the most frequent health problems for middle aged and older people. There is strong evidence that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Interleukin-1 is the prototypical proinflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of cartilage matrix degeneration. Results from studies in animal models provide stronger evidence implicating a role for interleukin-1 in the pathogenesis of matrix loss in osteoarthritis. These include the induction of proteoglycan loss by intraarticular injection of interleukin-1 and the capacity of the inhibitor of interleukin-1, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra), to slow the progression of cartilage loss in animal models of osteoarthritis. The botulinum toxin has been used in many clinical situations such as: cerebral palsy, headache, cosmesis and etc. Moreover, there is evidence that botulinum toxin specifically inhibits Rho GTPase by ADP-ribosylation of aminoacid ASn-41. Rho GTPase is necessary for activation of interleukin-1 inflammation pathway. Based on previously mentioned evidence we suggest, intraarticular injection of the botulinum toxin may be a useful therapy in osteoarthritis.


© 2005 Hamid Namazi and Zahra Majd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.