Health Impacts Estimation of Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Suspended Atmospheric Particles over the East Desert
U. Ali Rahoma and Elsayed Emara
DOI : 10.3844/ajidsp.2010.75.88
American Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume 6, Issue 3
Problem statement: The small size fraction of aerosols, measured as PM10 and PM2.5, rather than the larger particles, is considered to be responsible for most of the health effects. Such particles have a relatively long residence time in the atmosphere and can therefore travel over long distances. Hence, a large portion of ambient concentrations of PM10 and in particular of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), can be attributed to long range trans boundary air pollution or to other remote sources. The estimates of exposure and of health effects are based on a number of uncertain assumptions and data sets, as described in previous article. Approach: In industrialized Middle East countries, the daily deposition of PM10 particles in the lungs is roughly 250 ?g day?1, which represents a small dose in terms of traditional toxicology studies. Studies of PM10 have considered this total material but have not asked how much its chemical or physical characteristics contribute to its total toxicity. Results: This article focuses on the description of the present knowledge on PM10 concentration fields and predominant sources contributing to PM10 from long range transport of pollution. PM10 is a complex mixture of many known and unknown components; therefore, a short introduction on the composition of PM10 is given. The studies denote to the African dust from mean PM10 levels background levels are still 5-10 mg m3 higher in the Eastern Basin (EMB) when compared with those in the Western (WMB), mainly due to the higher anthropogenic and sea spray loads. Conclusion: As regards for the seasonal trends, these are largely driven by the occurrence of African dust events, resulting in a spring-early summer maximum over the EMB and a clear summer maximum in the WMB, although in this later region the recirculation of aged air masses play an important role. Furthermore, a marked seasonal trend is still evident when subtracting the African dust load. This is characterized by a high summer maximum (driven by low precipitation, high isolation) and a winter minimum (intense synoptic winds).
© 2010 U. Ali Rahoma and Elsayed Emara. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.