Research Article Open Access

Personal Exposure to PM2.5 in the Various Microenvironments as a Traveler in the Southeast Asian Countries

Semih Ozler1, Karoline K. Johnson2, Michael H. Bergin2 and James Jay Schauer1
  • 1 University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States
  • 2 Duke University, United States


Air pollution has become a pressing issue in today’s society because of its significant effects on humans, animals, plants, air quality, climate and the wider environment. Most urban areas are associated with one or more air pollutants which are emitted from local or regional pollution sources including vehicle exhausts, fossil fuels using in energy production, emissions from industrial and mining activities, agricultural and construction operations, household usage of chemicals and materials and natural causes. Most personal exposure studies are focused on local environments and short-term periods. Previous controlled experiments and studies were done in a small number of designated areas in cities. Our research study used time-based activity data; 3 main and 17 sub-microenvironments were applied over 37 days-long research while traveling through Southeast Asian countries. In this study, personal exposure of PM2.5 for a traveler was monitored using an assembled low-cost monitor with Plantower PMS 3003 PM2.5 sensor which has a light-scattering principle. All time-based activity data was recorded with a smartphone whenever microenvironments changed during the study period. The goal of this study was to understand more about the personal exposure to PM2.5 related air pollution in the global travel environment as a traveler and to understand how an individual’s activity and location impact PM2.5 exposure. According to the results from the Southeast Asia study, the personal PM2.5 exposure varied in the categorized microenvironments. Port/Station (outdoor) and Café/Pub/Restaurant (indoor-outdoor) were the most polluted microenvironments with 32.8 and 29.6 µg/m3 1-h mean PM2.5 concentration, respectively. Market/Shopping Mall (indoor), Street (outdoor) and Cable Car/Metro/Tram (vehicle) were also concerning microenvironments with 19.3, 19.3 and 18.9 µg/m3 1-h mean PM2.5 concentrations, respectively. Passenger Car microenvironment had the lowest 1-h mean PM2.5 concentration of 2.3 µg/m3 which agrees with some other studies on transportation microenvironments in the literature.

American Journal of Environmental Sciences
Volume 14 No. 4, 2018, 170-184


Submitted On: 28 August 2018 Published On: 27 October 2018

How to Cite: Ozler, S., Johnson, K. K., Bergin, M. H. & Schauer, J. J. (2018). Personal Exposure to PM2.5 in the Various Microenvironments as a Traveler in the Southeast Asian Countries. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 14(4), 170-184.

  • 8 Citations



  • Air Pollution
  • Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5)
  • Personal Exposure
  • Microenvironments
  • Low-Cost Sensors