Review Article Open Access

Continuous Flow Synthesis of Zeolite-A from Coal Fly Ash Utilizing Microwave Irradiation with Recycled Liquid Stream

Salman Bukhari1 and Sohrab Rohani1
  • 1 Western University, Canada
American Journal of Environmental Sciences
Volume 13 No. 3, 2017, 233-244

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajessp.2017.233.244

Submitted On: 14 December 2016
Published On: 19 June 2017

How to Cite: Bukhari, S. & Rohani, S. (2017). Continuous Flow Synthesis of Zeolite-A from Coal Fly Ash Utilizing Microwave Irradiation with Recycled Liquid Stream. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 13(3), 233-244. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajessp.2017.233.244

Abstract

Coal Fly Ash (CFA) was converted to zeolite using continuous microwave reactors while minimizing the wastewater produced during the zeolitization process. At bench scale, a continuous flow tubular microwave reactor was used to explore the effect of microwave irradiation on the crystallinity of the product. The waste water was reused in consecutive runs and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis was conducted during and after each run to observe the concentration of the cations. An increase in the production of hydroxysodalite compared to zeolite-A was noted at higher levels of microwave energy. The XRD and SEM analyses were also conducted to corroborate the results. The Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) measurement showed the highest value of 0.405 meq/g when Deionized (DI) water was used, the CEC dropped to 0.177 meq/g for thrice recycled waste stream. It was also found that higher microwave irradiation resulted in faster crystal growth and the product crystallinity reached its maximum at 810 W of microwave irradiation in 60 min while 335 W of microwave irradiation resulted in the same crystallinity after 120 min of reaction.

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Keywords

  • Coal Fly Ash
  • Synthesis
  • Microwave
  • Continuous Flow
  • Bench Scale
  • Zeolite A
  • Hydroxysodalite