American Journal of Environmental Sciences


Jakaphong Kongpanya, Kanokorn Hussaro and Sombat Teekasap

DOI : 10.3844/ajessp.2014.324.335

American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 10, Issue 4

Pages 324-335


Thailand is facing with problems associated with biomass residue such as palm oil residues (oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches, shells and fibers). Biomass is promising source for the production of an array of energy-related produts including, liquid, solid and gaseous fuels, heat, chemicals electricity and other materials. Therefore, the use of biomass for energy is not still fully utilization due to the high moisture content, lower heating value of the energy unit or low bulk density and the problems withtar. While Thailand has high potential because the reisa lot of biomass that has not been utilizedfor example biomass residues from palm oil industry. About 2 million tons of empty fruit bunches in Thailand have great potential. This amount will continue increase with the rapid growth in the Thailand, the largest crude palm oil producer in the world. This amount will continue increase with the rapid growth in the Thailand palm oil industry. Therefore, a better method to manage such biomass residues is highly desired. One of the potential ways for alternative utilization of biomass is thermo-chemical process. Hydrothermal treatment is a process for making a homogenizinged, carbon rich and energy-dense solid fuel, called hydrochar. The objective of the study was to identify the effect of reaction temperature and reaction time for hydrothermal treatment of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB). Influence of temperature 100°C, 150°C and 200°C for 30 to 90 min) and active biogas process on 1.00-15.538 bars, within 1,000 mL stainless steel 316 batch-type reactor with a stirrer and there is an automatic temperature controller. Results showed that the highest chemical and physical properties of hydrochar product was achieved when operated on 200°C for 90 min. Maximum heating value was found that 5678 cal/g for EFB9. The result showed that the chemical and physical properties increased progressively with higher temperature. The results was indicated that hydro char product of 200°C (EFB3, EFB 6 and EFB9) had higher decomposed hemicellose than other product, there were in the range from 76.28 to 81.41%. While hydrochar product of 200°C (EFB3, EFB 6 and EFB9) had increased cellulose about 57.09 to 59.14%. Both time and temperature influence product characteristics, temperature remains the decisive process parameter. Due to there was decreasing polarity and increasing temperature. It should be noted that a manipulation of the water pH has a significant impact on the reaction mechanism of cellulose and hemicellulose in water. Therefore, temperature of hydrothermal treatment can be used effectively as an operating strategy to hydrochar production.


© 2014 Jakaphong Kongpanya, Kanokorn Hussaro and Sombat Teekasap. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.