American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Hair Lead Bio-Monitoring Among School Children in the Province of Cavite, Philippines

Janet P. Macawile and Glenn L. Sia Su

DOI : 10.3844/ajessp.2012.642.647

American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 8, Issue 6

Pages 642-647


Airborne lead is one of the pressing environmental problems that cause neuropsychological impairments to people who are exposed to it. In assessing people’s exposure to airborne lead, bio-monitoring techniques has been used as an indicator of chemical exposure. This study aims to determine the hair lead concentrations among school children in the province of Cavite and compare the hair lead concentrations of the school children living and studying in the urban and rural areas of the province of Cavite, Philippines. Consenting public and private school children of the municipalities of Bacoor and Alfonso were involved in the study. Hair strands were obtained from each student and analyzed for lead concentrations. Results of hair lead concentrations were compared for significant differences between the public and private schools in both areas using the t test under the significance level of p<0.05. A total of 922 consenting school children participated in this study. The hair lead concentrations (mean ± SD) of all school children surveyed was 0.2814±0.1245 ppm. Hair lead concentrations of children studying in public schools were higher relative to those in private schools. School children residing in the urban areas had higher hair lead concentrations compared with those residing in the rural areas. Hair lead concentrations of school children living in urban and rural areas and those studying in private and public schools in Bacoor and Alfonso were found to be significantly different (t = 9.096 and t = 6.867, respectively; p<0.05). Findings indicate that school children are exposed to airborne lead.


© 2012 Janet P. Macawile and Glenn L. Sia Su. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.