American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Dynamic Modelling of an Industrial Smelter Furnace and Converter Off-gas System

Helen Shang, Megan Dillabough, Phillip Nelson and Bryan Salt

DOI : 10.3844/ajessp.2008.22.30

American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 4, Issue 1

Pages 22-30


In smelters, metal ores or concentrates are smelted to reduce a metal oxide to a metal through a series of reactions and processes. In a smelting process, a large amount of off-gas emissions are often generated, which can cause serious environmental and plant hygiene problems if not properly treated. Off-gas systems extract and treat the off-gas emissions, and ensure that the smelter operation is in accordance with environmental and industrial hygiene regulations. In this paper, the dynamic models for an industrial smelter furnace and converter off-gas system, tackling hazardous sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), are developed using mass continuity, momentum and energy conservation laws. Based on the developed dynamic models, the effects of important variables on the system’s dynamics are studied via simulations. The developed dynamic models provide a necessary basis for high performance control development of smelter off-gas systems because online measurements are limited and additional ones must be justified.


© 2008 Helen Shang, Megan Dillabough, Phillip Nelson and Bryan Salt. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.