American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Assessment on Biocides Bioaccumulation in Mullet Liza klunzingeri in Kuwaiti Waters, off the Arabian Gulf

A.H. Bu-Olayan and B. V. thomes

DOI : 10.3844/ajessp.2006.109.113

American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 2, Issue 3

Pages 109-113


Biocides, such as formaldehyde (HCHO), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2) that are commonly used in thermal, desalination and power plants and industries were tested on the commercially important mullet fish, Liza klunzingeri to determine the environmental contamination in the stressed ecosystem of Kuwait Bay sites. Multi-factor Probit analysis toxicity tests (96 h) on L. klunzingeri showed the lowest observed effective concentration (LOEC) and median lethal concentration (LC50) with NaOCl (0.019 and 0.027 μg L-1) followed by HCHO (0.058 and 0.157 μg L-1) and C5H8O2 (0.056 and 0.072 μg L-1). Site-wise analysis in the absence of feed showed high biocides toxicity in L. klunzingeri reared in seawater from Site I when compared to Sites II-III. Experiments were conducted (2-9 months) by rearing fish separately in seawater collected from three Kuwait Bay sites to test the bio-accumulated toxicity levels at LOEC of biocides fed fish using Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) calculation. The lowest FCR was observed in fish fed with biocides in the sequence of NaOCl (0.40-1.1) followed by C5H8O2 (0.91-1.2) and HCHO (0.92-1.3) as well as with fish reared in seawater from Site I followed by Site II and Site III. High FCR was recorded in control (1.2-1.6) without the addition of biocides. These results exemplify the use of L. klunzingeri as an indicator species and may characterize a better quantification of biocides bioaccumulation using FCR calculation in mullet fish.


© 2006 A.H. Bu-Olayan and B. V. thomes. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.