American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Palm Carotenoids

Puah C. Wei, Choo Y. May, Ma A. Ngan and Chuah C. Hock

DOI : 10.3844/ajessp.2005.264.269

American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 1, Issue 4

Pages 264-269


The extraction of carotenoids from crude palm oil was carried out in a dynamic (flow- through) supercritical fluid extraction system. The carotenoids obtained were quantified using off-line UV-visible spectrophotometry. The effects of operating pressure and temperature, flow rate of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), sample size of feed used on the solubility of palm carotenoids were investigated. The results showed that the extraction of carotenoids was governed by its solubility in the SC-CO2 and can be enhanced by increasing pressure at a constant temperature or decreasing temperature at a constant pressure. Increasing the flow rate and decreasing the sample size can reduce the extraction time but do not enhance the solubility. Palm carotenoids have very low solubility in SC-CO2 in the range of 1.31 x 10-4 g kg-1 to 1.58 x 10-3 g kg-1 for the conditions investigated in this study. The experimental data obtained were compared with those published by other workers and correlated by a density-based equation as proposed by Chrastil.


© 2005 Puah C. Wei, Choo Y. May, Ma A. Ngan and Chuah C. Hock. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.